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The Twelve Imams in the Sunni Sources

Author : Ghulam Husayn Zaynali
Subject : Fiqh ul-Hadith
Translator : Ahmad Rezwani
Editor : Mahdi Baqi


25 Oct 2011
Hadith Sciences 3

Abstract

The Noble Prophet’s (SAW) succession is one of the significant discussions in Islamic history. Different views on it brought about different denominations among Muslims. The author attempts to survey Sunni sources to investigate the evidence concerning the Infallible Imams (AS) as the twelve successors of the Prophet (SAW) and the employment of such evidence to substantiate Shi´a arguments. The pivot of the discussion constitutes the Prophetic hadith in which the Prophet mentioned his successors and claimed them to be twelve in number. An exposition of such hadith in Sunni sources is followed by Sunni scholars´ perspective and the author’s response regarding their justifications the most significant of which is the Sunni perspective on succession. The author presents seven arguments to substantiate his statement to the effect that the aforesaid evidence from the Sunni sources bears no similarity to the contents of Prophetic hadith. The last section consists of an exposition of the merits of the Prophet’s Household as reflected in the Sunni sources.

Key Words

the Twelve Imams, the Sunni viewpoint, merits of the Prophet’s Household, Jabir’s hadith, hadith of the Two Heavy Things (Thaqalayn).



Body

Discussion over the issue of Caliphate and succession to the Holy Prophet of Islam is among the discourses mooted among the Muslims from the early hours of the Holy Prophet’s demise; and it has always been of concern to theologians, historians, and other experts among the two major sects (of Shī‘a and Sunnī) in the fourteen years after the demise of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.). Since then, thousands of books, treatises, and essays have been written on in this respect either by Muslim scholars or by the scholars from other faiths and nations. Thus, this issue has always played a pivotal role as a living and significant topic in the beliefs and actions of Muslim community.

In the first days after the demise of the Prophet (S.A.W.), however, because of the tense atmosphere and the confusion spread over the newly established Muslim community by the ruling body and the presence of the warlike army of forgers of ḥadīth and other factors, there was such a situation that the recognition of truth from among so much dust raised by the sauntering falsehood was not an easy task, especially for the people who had newly been emancipated from the bonds of ignorance and stepped into the realm of monotheism.

Now that the dust has to some extent settled down, various Islamic sciences – particularly science of ḥadīth – are formulated; the ground is increasingly being paved for the publication and dissemination of sciences due to the advancement of printing and publishing equipment; and gaining access to various sources of different Islamic schools of thought has become convenient, so this issue can be discussed about and judged on more easily.

From the very early days, the adversaries of Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.) devised widespread plots so that by suppressing the facts they could prevent the transmission of the evidences regarding the rightfulness of Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.) to the later generations. To achieve this goal, they planned numerous sketches including taking allegiance from all Muslims and preventing from the writing down of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)’s traditions, followed by creating a powerful army of ḥadīth forgers and inventing virtues for such and such a person.

The policy of the ruling wing and their proponents never came to an end; rather, so much of the documents and evidences that could expose their wrongdoings and had remained intact from the early centuries were suppressed and manipulated in later centuries by the memorizers and “writers of revelations”, most of whom were the advocates of the policy set forth by Saqīfa. Their mission along that trajectory was to fulfill the incomplete task of their ancestors; so they made an effort to wipe out in various ways the few traces left over from the past which could be used as proofs against those involved in Saqīfa. Nevertheless, despite all efforts, there are still evidences and documents here and there among their books and sources of history, tafsīr, and traditions which if properly utilized can rightly help us toward uncovering the truth.

In this paper, we intend to find out what evidences and traces are left intact about the twelve Imams and successors to the Prophet (S.A.W.) in the works and sources of the Sunnīs and how they can be exploited. Furthermore, we will be mostly concerned here with those of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)’s traditions in which His Holiness has referred to the number of his successors and declared them to be twelve.

The Relevant Traditions in the Sunnī Sources

The traditions narrated in relation to the successors to the Prophet (S.A.W.), declaring the number of the Caliphs after the Apostle of Allah, are so numerous and various both in quantity and in content that detailed discussion about it is beyond the scope of this article.

In this chance, we will present a brief discussion in this regard; so, we have to suffice to give examples in each part of the discussion.

Now, we take a glance at the Sunnī sources and review the traditions in question:

1. Ḥafiẓ Abū ‘Abd Allāh al-Bukhārī, in his Ṣaḥīḥ, relates via Jābir b. Samara from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

“There will be twelve chiefs (amīrs) [after me]”. Then he said something that I could not hear. My father said: “the Apostle of Allah said: All of them are from the Quraysh.”[1]

2. Muslim, in his Ṣaḥīḥ, relates via Jābir b. Samara from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

Islam will remain mighty and glorified as long as twelve caliphs come [to rule], all of whom from the Quraysh.[2]

3. Tarmadhī, in his Sunan, quotes the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) as stating:

There will be twelve Amīrs after me, all of whom from the Quraysh.[3]

4. Ḥāfiẓ b. Abū Dāwūd Sajistānī has quoted Jābir b. Samara in his Sunan as saying: I heard the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) say:

This Religion will ever remain upright as long as there will be among you twelve Caliphs, all of whom to be accepted by the Umma. [Jābir b. Samara goes on to say:] Then I heard the Prophet (S.A.W.) say something that I did not comprehend. I asked my father what the Prophet said, and my father replied: [he said:] “All of them are from the Quraysh.” [4]

5. Aāmad b. Ḥanbal in his Musnad has related via Jābir b. Samara from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

There will be twelve Caliphs for this Umma.[5]

6. Ḥākim-i Nīshābūrī in his Mustadrak quotes Awn b. Abū Jaḥīfa as relating from his father that the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) stated:

My Umma will ever remain righteous as long as there will come [to rule] twelve Caliphs, all of whom from the Quraysh. [6]

7. Al-Siyūṭī relates via Jābir b. Samara from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

This affair (amr) will ever remain glorified, and twelve Caliphs who are all from the Quraysh will defend it against those who are hostile to it. [7]

8. Khaṭīb al-Baghdādī relates via Jābir b. Samara from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

There will be after me twelve Amīrs, all of whom from the Quraysh.[8]

9. Ṭabarānī relates via Jābir b. Samara from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

This religion will remain powerful and invincible as long as twelve caliphs come [to rule], all of whom from the Quraysh.[9]

10. Abū Na‘īm relates via Jābir b. Samara from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

There will be twelve Amīrs after me, all of whom from the Quraysh.[10]

11. The author of Al-Tāj relates via Jābir from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

Islam will remain powerful as long as twelve caliphs come [to rule], all of whom from the Quraysh.[11]

12. Bayhaqqī relates via Jābir from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

This Religion will ever remain upright as long as there will be among you twelve Caliphs, all of whom to be accepted by the Umma.[12]

13. Muttaqī Hindī relates via Anas from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

This Religion will ever remain upright as long as there will be among you twelve Caliphs from the Quraysh; when they perish, the earth and its inhabitants will be thrown into disorder.[13]

14. Also in Muntakhab-i Kanz al-‘Ummāl, it is related via Ibn Masūd from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

There will be twelve guardians to this Umma; those who abandon them will inflict no loss on them.[14]

15. Ḥanafī al-Qandūzī relates via Jābir b. Samara from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

After me, there will be twelve Caliphs, all of whom from the Quraysh.[15]

Similarly, he relates via Jābir from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

I am the chief (sayyid) of the Prophets and Ali (A.S.) is the chief of the Waṣīs (successors; trustees); indeed my trustees after me will be twelve, of whom the first is Ali (A.S.) and the last will be Mahdī, the Qā’im (Aj).[16]

The above-mentioned traditions have been widely reflected in the Sunnī sources and subject to discussions and exchange of views.

The Historical Background of the Discussion

Since early centuries A.H., there have always been discussions between the scholars of the two major sects (the Sunnīs and the Shī‘as), and even among the Sunnī scholars in relation to these series of traditions of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.). In later centuries, when the memorizers and the interpreters of ḥadīth encountered such traditions, each one of them somehow sought a countermeasure in this respect and tried to find a suitable justification to explain them away.

The first remedial measures in this relation dates back to the time of the companions. It is to be known that the Sunnī scholars’ sensitivity toward this issue is quite well-founded and understandable. This is one the critical discussions in the Muslim community, as it is within such a discourse that the followers of Muḥammad (S.A.W.) seek to identify the successors to the Holy Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) and take them as their leaders.

Therefore, if the Sunnī scholars do not present an acceptable reply in this respect, the foundation of their beliefs would fall apart. Nevertheless, the Sunnī scholars have not done anything to solve this problem, nor have they achieved much of a success yet. Now, we intend to bring up a number of their remedial comments and then make an assessment about them.

The Sunnī Scholars’ Remedial Comments in Regard to these Traditions

Sunnī scholars’ comments will also be touched upon briefly, sufficing to point out just a few instances. So, let’s turn back to the past and begin the discussion from the time of the companions.

1. ‘Abd Allāh B. ‘Umar

It is related from ‘Abd Allāh b. ‘Umar that once he was talking about the Islamic Caliphate; and as such, proceeded to mention the twelve Caliphs after the Prophet and that, as pointed out in the traditions, they were all from the Quraysh.

Then, he named the twelve Caliphs of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) in the following order: 1. Abū Bakr, 2. ‘Umar, 3. ‘Uthmān, 4. Mu‘āwiya, 5. Yazīd, 6. Saffāḥ, 7. Manṣūr, 8. Jābir, 9. Amīn, 10. Salām, 11. Mahdī, 12. Amīr al-‘Aṣab,[17] and added that all of them were righteous and there were no one like them!

There are some points worth mentioning in ‘Abd Allāh b. ‘Umar’s ḥadīth:

A. First of all, he has regarded Mu‘āwiya and Yazīd as among the successors to the Prophet, but does not say anything about Amīr al-Mu’minīn Ali (A.S.), the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)’s cousin, son-in-law, and brother; whereas all Muslims know him as the Caliph and successor to the Prophet. The Shī‘as regard him to be the Prophet’s immediate Caliph, and similarly, the Sunnīs also know him – although farther in the rank – as a successor to the Prophet; but ‘Abd Allāh b. ‘Umar seems to have been isolated from the Muslim community and does not accept their views. Some evidences are also found in his life denoting this reality; for instance, he did not swear allegiance to Amīr al-Mu’minīn (A.S.) due to his enmity toward him and refused to express his virtues. Instead, he pledged allegiance to Yazīd b. Mu‘āwiya and accepted him as the Prophet (S.A.W.)’s Caliph!

What similarity has there really been between Yazīd’s beliefs and actions and those of the Prophet (S.A.W.) that made ‘Abd Allāh b. ‘Umar accept him as the successor to the Prophet (S.A.W.), but does not accept Amīr al-Mu’minīn (A.S.) as such?

B. As we know, the Prophet (S.A.W.) is the standard bearer of Divine values, a perfect human being, and a paradigm of faith and virtue; and Yazīd is a source of corruption and tyranny and an incarnate of all human rascality and wickedness. So, how can such a person be a successor to the Prophet? Mu‘āwiya, Mnaṣūr, and others are no better than Yazīd, they are even worse.

C. He has also declared Jābir, Salām, and Amīr al-‘Aṣab as successors to the Prophet. Now, the following questions remain to be answered:

Who are they? What is their lineage? Are they from the Umayyads or the Abbasids? In what age did they live? Which of the historians has written down their biography? What date did they took over the rule, and in what part of the world were they appointed as successors to the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.)? What information is available about their functions during that era? Did such people really exist or was their existence of an imaginary nature, and as such, was it not made up in ‘Abd Allāh b. ‘Umar’s mind?

D. As it is known, from the time of Yazīd b. Mu‘āwiya in 64/683 until the reign of Saffāḥ in 123/749 caliphate ceased and the Muslim community remained idle with no one in charge. Perhaps to ‘Abd Allāh b. ‘Umar’s opinion, the Muslims who lived during such long time (sixty eight years) did not need any leaders! Whereas he himself related the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who said:

The one who dies without (having) a leader, dies as in the Paganism (Jāhiliya).[18]

Thus, had not those who died during this time actually died the death of Jāhiliya?

Similarly, it was Ibn Ḥazm who said:

It is not permissible for a Muslim to spend two nights without having sworn allegiance to an Imam.[19]

E. Apart form these, what prominent personality did the tyrant Maṣūr enjoy to have been confirmed by the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) as a Caliph of the Muslims? Also, why had not ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz, who was the best Umayyad Caliph, been introduced as Caliph in place of Yazīd? And why should wine-drinking persons like Yazīd and Mu‘āwiya put on the mantle of Caliphate, but ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz – who took over the Caliphate for forty days and then tossed it away - did not have the right to wear it and be asserted? Whereas many of the eminent traditionists have attested to the Caliphate and justice of ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz and regarded him one of the Rightly-guided Caliphs (al-Khulafā al-Rāshidūn), as stated in Tārīkh of Ibn Kathīr[20] and Tārīkh al-Khulafā.[21]

F. The very text of the ḥadīth truly testifies to its bogusness, for if the Caliph who is promised to come is like Mu‘āwiya, son of Hind, or like Jābir, Salām, and Amīr al-‘Aṣab, who were all inexistent, then it goes without saying that such news is fabricated and a lie.

Besides, when the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) said: “The Caliphs after me will be twelve”, he had definitely had certain people in mind; otherwise, what different did it make if the number would have been declared as twelve or more or less?

Furthermore, the Prophet (S.A.W.) was the most eloquent Arab and it is hard to believe that the most eloquent man of his time[22] or of all ages would have said something that could have created ambiguity among his audience, leaving them forever in doubt and their questions unanswered! It is also unbelievable that the eloquent and infallible speaker, who always explicitly stated and clarified the smallest problems of the Muslim community, would have talked so curtly about such an important and crucial issue, leaving its interpretation and applications up to the scholars in the courts of the Umayyad and Abbasid sultans so that they would whimsically interpret the Prophet’s words and select whomever they wished as the successor to the Prophet, and reject whomever they did not like or was against their political interests, even though specially favored by the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.).

Similarly, why did the companions, who would always question the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) concerning the smallest issues, fail to ask His Holiness about his successors when they did not hear him say anything about such an important a crucial problem? This seems particularly important as they had whole-heartedly realized the fact that the glory and power of the Muslims was dependent upon the Prophet’s competent leadership.

The companions had definitely time and again asked the Prophet (S.A.W.) concerning this issue, but it was against the political and social interests of the memorizers of ḥadīth, or better say, of the Umayyad and Abbasid rulers to publicize this part of the Holy Prophet’s utterances in their own works.

Siyūṭī relates from Aḥmad, Bazzāz, quoting Ibn Mas‘ūd as saying:

The Prophet (S.A.W.) was asked about the number of Caliphs who were going to rule this Umma. His Holiness stated: “They are twelve; [the same as] the number of the chieftains to the children of Israel.[23]

Likewise, another Sunnī scholar, Ḥanafī Qundūzī relates a ḥadīth via Ibn Abbās according to which the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) is inquired about his successors and, in reply, His Holiness named them one by one, the first of whom was Ali (A.S.) and the last of them Mahdī.[24]

G. The Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)’s twelve Caliphs were the perpetuators of the Prophetic mission and the leaders to the Muslim community. Muslim community is not restricted to the Muslims in the era of al-Khulafā al-Rāshidūn or the Umayyad sultans, or the early periods of the Abbasid kings; rather, the Muslims who were and are living in later centuries are also rated as among the Umma of Muḥammad (S.A.W.). Therefore, it is not reasonable for some people to restrict the Prophet’s twelve Caliphs exclusively to that era.

There are numerous traditions that confirm this issue; such as what Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal has related in his Musnad from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who said: “There will be twelve Caliphs to this Umma.” This indicates that the twelve Caliphs were not restricted to a particular time; rather, they belonged to all Muslim Umma in all ages and eras.

There are numerous other traditions in this respect, some of which will be given later on in this paper.

H. Within the tradition related by Abū Dāwūd Sajistānī, we see the statement: kullihum tajtama‘ ‘alayhi al-umma (i.e., there is consensus among all the Umma about them)[25], which nullifies the rationalizations of the Sunnī scholars about this tradition. It is implied from this statement that one feature of the twelve successors to the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) is that all the Umma have been in agreement about them and accepted them as successors to the Prophet; whereas, it is well-known that the Sunnī Caliphs were never accepted by all the Muslim Umma, neither in their own age nor in later centuries. Firstly, because thousands of innocent people including eminent Muslim figures were living in the very era of the Umayyad and Abbasid rulers and thousands of others were murdered by them. What made these people meet such a destiny was their opposition to the rulership of those rulers. Furthermore, the Shī‘a Imams, who were all from among the household and the children of the Prophet (S.A.W.), were all killed as martyrs by the very Caliphs. Their martyrdom was because they not only did not approve of the Umayyad and Abbasid rulers, but were constantly in battle against them.

Besides this, never did the Umayyad and Abbasid rulers happen to freely receive allegiance and confirmation form the people, for the Caliphate had been hereditary among them; consequently, peoples’ allegiance was nothing more that a superficial and feigned one.

Secondly, there has been much dispute among the Sunnīs over this issue, for their rationalizations were contradictory as everyone had said something in this respect and presented a view different from that of others. This difference in opinion indicates that the Prophet (S.A.W.)’s twelve successors are not the ones that the Sunnī scholars have introduced; otherwise, there must have been consensus among the Umma in this regard.

2. Jalāl al-Dīn al-Siyūṭī

Another eminent figure that has expressed his view on this issue is the great Sunnī scholar Jalāl al-Dīn al-Siyūṭī. In his Tārīkh al-Khulafā, he saiys:

Eight of the Prophet’s twelve Caliphs were: Abū Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthmān, Ali, Ḥasan b. Ali, Mu‘āwiya, ‘Abd Allah b. Zubayr, and ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz.

He has then presumed that two other Caliphs were also Al-Muhtadī and Al-Ẓāhir, from among the Abbasid sultans, as these to were, to Siyūṭī’s opinion, just (‘ādil) people.

He adds:

There remain two more, for whom we have to wait: One of is “Mahdī”, who is of Muḥammad’s household [peace be upon them all].

He does not name the second one. With all his efforts, therefore, Siyūṭī thinks he has identified eleven of the Caliphs and has not been able to find among the Umayyad and Abbasid sultans another person who to his opinion was competent enough to take over the Islamic Caliphate and to meet the precondition that he mentions for Caliphate, i.e., justice.

Apart from a number of objections raised against ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Umar, which are also applicable against Siyūṭī, there are other objections made to the latter’s list such as: in respect to Al-Muhtadī and Al-Ẓāhir, he does not specify which one was the ninth and which on the tenth Caliphate; yet, having chosen the two based on probability, rather than on certitude. Also, in respect to Imam Mahdī (A.S.), he does not clarify whether Mahdī is the eleventh or twelfth Caliph to the Apostle of Allah. It indicates that Siyūṭī himself did not seem to believe in what he has done, but merely wanted to justify the traditions transmitted about the twelve Caliphs; otherwise, there was no room for hesitation concerning such an important issue.[26]

3. Ibn Ḥajar

Shaykh al-Islām Ibn Ḥajar Asqalānī, in his Sharḥ-i Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī,[27] where he discusses Jābir b. Samara,s ḥadīth according to which the Prophet (S.A.W.) had declared his successors to be twelve[28], has tried to propose a solution to this problem. Greatly interested in the Umayyad dynasty, he has made an attempt to choose and finalize the twelve Caliphs from among the sultans of this dynasty. Contrary to ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Umar and Jalāl al-Dī al-Siyūṭī, he has allocated no share from Caliphate to Abbasid dynasty and has regarded it as absolute property belonging to the Umayyad.

First, Ibn Ḥajar relates Qāḍī ‘Ayāḍ’s view who had declared the twelve Caliphs as: 1. Abū Bakr, 2. ‘Umar, 3. ‘Uthmān, 4. Ali (A.S.), 5. Mu‘āwiya, 6. YAzīd, 7. ‘Abd al-Malik b. Marwān, 8. Walīd b. ‘Abd al-Malik, 9. Sulaymān b. ‘Abd al-Malik, 10. Yazīd b. ‘Abd al-Malik, 11. Hishām b. ‘Abd al-Malik, 12. Walīd b. Yazīd b. ‘Abd al-Malik. Next, he praises the words of Qāḍī ‘Ayāḍ and prefers it over all other possibilities. As we said before, Siyūṭī regarded justice as a precondition for the Muslim Caliphs and successors to the Prophet (S.A.W.). Thus, he eliminated the majority of the Umayyad and Abbasid sultans from the list of the successors for the lack of this precondition, even though he faced with shortage of Caliphs to complete the list. He accepted to leave the list of the twelve Caliphs incomplete but failed to choose anyone from among the Umayyad tyrant sultans.

As for Ibn Ḥajar, the story is quite the reverse. It seems that he not only does not regard justice as a precondition, but he looks for those who do not meet this condition! As we noticed, Ibn Ḥajar was firstly seeking to choose the twelve Caliphs from among the Umayyad kings, and secondly, he insisted to choose them among the tyrannical men. For this reason, although many of the Sunnī scholars have regarded ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz as a just ruler and rated him to be among al-Khulafā al-Rāshidūn, Ibn Ḥajar deprived him of being considered as a Caliph due to his own particular mentality. This action by Ibn Ḥajar seems to have no other reason than the Sunnī scholars’ conviction that ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz had been a just person!

Although the reign of ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz took place in the interval between the reign of two of ‘Abd al-Malik b. Marwān’ children, Ibn Ḥazm considers Sulaymān and YAzīd as successors to the Prophet but fails to accept ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz as the Prophet’s Caliphate who took up government in the period between the reign of these two and who was better than the other two as testified by all Sunnī scholars.

4. Sufyān al-Thūrī

He was also among the Sunnī prominent scholars who regarded Caliphate as applicable only to five people and does not deem as deserving such position no one among the Umayyad and Abbasid sultans except for ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz. He said:

The Caliphs are five: Abū Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthmān, Ali (A.S.), and ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz.[29]

Although Sufyān al-Thūrī has attempted to rule the incompetent forces out of the arena of the Islamic Caliphate, the solution that he presented did not solve the problem of the twelve Caliphs, as he did not have anything to say about the seven remaining caliphs in the list.

5. Ibn Kathīr

In his Al-Bidāya wa al-Nihāya, he relates Jābir b. Samara’s ḥadīth (Islam will remain powerful as long as twelve caliphs come [to rule], all of whom from the Quraysh.), and then says:

Four of these twelve are: Abū Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthmān, Ali; ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz is also among them. Some of the Abbasid are also included.

Then, he goes on to add:

It does not mean that these twelve are in a particular order (and from a particular clan or tribe); rather, what is meant is that twelve Caliphs would come along. Nor it means the twelve Imams of the Shī‘as, the first of whom is Ali and the last is the Awaited [Mahdī]; for, of these no one but Ali (A.S.) and his son Ḥasan ruled over the Umma.[30]

Concerning Ibn Kathīr’s remarks some points are to be brought up as follows:

A. First of all, he was unable to name all the twelve Caliphs and suffices to mention only five of them. When such a scholar as Ibn Kathīr fails to list the names of the Caliphs, what are the ordinary people to do? How would they be able to know the Caliphs of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)?

B. He was especially interested in the Umayyad Dynasty, but it seems that his widespread historical information about the misdemeanor of the Umayyad’s family members has prompted him not to mention any other member of the family except ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz as a successor to the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.).

C. He has not declared Ḥasan b. Ali (A.S.) as one the successors to the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.). Ḥasan b. Ali (A.S.) was one of the companions and a member Ahl-al-Bayt. All the Sunnī scholars know the companions of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) to be men of justice; it is also known that the Ahl al-Bayt of the Prophet are free from any impurity, as attested by the Qur’an. Besides, there are many traditions narrated about the virtues off Ḥasan b. Ali (A.S.), which have been narrated for no one else except for the Ahl al-Bayt.

So it is not clear why Ibn Kathīr did not name Ḥasan b. Ali (A.S.), but did name ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz. If Ibn Kathīr’s criterion for Caliphate was taking over the apparent rule, this came true for Ḥasan b. Ali (A.S.), too; but if it was virtuosity, still he possessed all virtues.

D. He said: “The Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)’s twelve Caliphs need not be of a single household and origin.” But he gives no proof for this assertion. When each one of the members of a household is among the most virtuous of his time, could he be deprived of Caliphate on the pretext that the twelve Caliphs of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) are not to be of the same origin; and then an incompetent person be chosen, instead?!

E. He Said: “They are not intended to be the twelve Caliphs that the Shī‘as believe in, either.” Because, according to him no one but Ali (A.S.) and his son Ḥasan (A.S.) from among the Shī‘a Imams have taken over the rule.

In reply, we say: Firstly, is any one who in any condition takes over the rule a successor to the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)? And if it is so, why Ibn KAthīr did not declare Mu‘āwiya, YAzīd, and other Umayyad and Abbasid rulers as successors to the Prophet? That was because they all attained the apparent rule. Secondly, Ḥasan b. Ali (A.S.) was both a Shī‘a Imam and a member of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)’s household, and had taken over the Caliphate and rule, too. Why, then, Inb Kathīr did not name him as among the Prophet (S.A.W.)’s Caliphs? What advantage did ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz enjoy that made Ibn Kathīr rate his as among the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)’s Caliphs, but he did not name the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)’ grandson?

Ibn Kathīr has mentioned no proof at all from the Prophet for the legitimacy of the Caliphate of these five persons, either. In other words, there had existed no proofs for the Caliphate of any others except for the Caliphate of Amīr al-Mu‘minīn (A.S.) to which Ibn Kathīr could have alluded.

F. Safīna relates a sound ḥadīthfrom the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who said:

The Caliphate period for my Umma is thirty years, after that there will be kingship.[31]

As we know, the reign of ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz started after the above-mentioned length of time in 99/717.[32] Thus, ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz can not be regarded as among the Caliphs; rather, he is among the Umayyad kings.

Sa‘īd b. Jamhān, who quoted the above ḥadīth from Safīna, says:

Safīna said to me: Calculate the Caliphate time of Abū Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthmān and add to it the Caliphate period of Ali (A.S.), then you will find it to be thirty years in all. Sa‘īd says: I said to Safīna, “The Umayyad think that Caliphate has remained among them”. To which Safīna replied: They tell lies, those sons of the blue-eyed woman! Indeed, they are from among the kings, even worse than the kings.

We see how different the opinions of some companions are from those of some Sunnī Scholars concerning the Prophet’s twelve Caliphs, to the extent that ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Umar regards Mu‘āwiya and Yazīd as righteous persons and successors to the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.); but Safīna, himself one of the companions, considers Mu‘āwiya, Yazīd, and other Umayyad rulers as among the worst of the kings.

What are, then, the Sunnī masses and those who wish to follow these scholars to do? Which one of these scholars’ opinions should they accept and pursue? Those whose opinions are different from each other and sometimes even contradictory?

Furthermore, how could they make sure that what they followed had been right and that they had properly fulfilled their duty?

As we noticed, the word “Quraysh” is used in all the traditions narrated on this issue. What has perplexed the Sunnī scholars seems to be the false impression they have formed of the word “Quraysh”; hence, trying to attribute it in all traditions narrated exclusively to the Umayyads.

The extant evidences indicate that Sunnī scholars, with such an impression, have undertaken to list the Prophet’s successors solely from among the anti-Islamic Umayyad dynasty, as if the Hashemites were not part of the Quraysh; whereas the Qurayshi origin of the Hashemites quite well-known to all.

The Evidences for this Discussion

In addition to what was said so far, there are numerous evidences indicating that the twelve Caliphs are not the ones introduced by the Sunnī scholars; rather, the Prophet (S.A.W.)’s Caliphs are the Imams from among the Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.) whom Shī’ism has insightfully realized and is honored to devotedly follow them as great Divine leaders. Some of these evidences are pointed out as follows:

First Evidence: The Caliphate of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)’s successors is not restricted to a particular time.

We said there are plenty of evidences indicating that the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)’s successors were not restricted to any particular era, e.g. from after the demise of the Holy Prophet until the 132/749 (as presumed by a large group of the Sunnī scholars). Rather, one from among them has always been present within Muḥammad (S.A.W.)’s Umma as Ḥujja of Allah, and will not be absent from the world in any age and era, and the Umma of Muḥammad will not be left without a leader and a guide. So, restriction of the Caliphate of Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)’s successors to a particular period is a false issue rejected by both the traditions narrated in this respect and by rational reasoning. For, as we said earlier, these are the leaders of the Muslim Umma and the Muslim Umma are not to be restricted to the Muslims of the first or second centuries of Hijra; whereas, the Sunnī scholars’ opinions concerning the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)’ twelve Caliphs necessitate that the Umma of Muḥammad should have remained without a leader from around 132/749 onward. This is a fact that can be found out in numerous traditions, some examples of which will be given further on in this discussion.

Second Evidence: The might and glory of Islam is dependent on the existence of the twelve Caliphs.

Going through the traditions that introduce the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)’s Caliphs as twelve, we run into significant concepts that in no way conform the justifications made by the Sunnī scholars. These series of traditions only conform to the Shī‘a viewpoints concerning the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)’s successors. In some traditions, for instance, the might and glory of Islam is taken to be dependent on the twelve Caliphs:

Islam will remain mighty and glorified as long as twelve caliphs come [to rule].[33]

In other traditions, the steadfastness of the Faith is regarded as subject to the existence of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)’s twelve Caliphs:

The Religion will ever remain upright as long as there will be twelve Caliphs.[34]

In some traditions on this issue, Islamic Caliphate in the reign of the twelve Caliphs was described as righteous, observing equity, and doing justice; and as we know – and will be dealt with later on – most of those whom the Sunnīs have introduced as the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)’s Caliphates were in fact corrupt and tyrannous people:

My Umma will ever remain in righteous condition as long as there will come [to rule] twelve Caliphs.[35]

In a number of traditions mention has also been made of glory and standing (‘izza) of Caliphate, but as we know the reign of the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphs was mingled with tyranny and injustice. So, such a rule would normally fail to be glorified!

This affair [i.e., religious condition] will ever remain glorified as long as there will come [to rule] twelve Caliphs, all from among the Quraysh.[36]

Now if we accept, as claimed by the Sunnī scholars, that the twelve Caliphs had ruled until 132/749 or a while later, and the reign of each of the twelve Caliphs has come to an end – as related from ‘Abd Allāh b. ‘Umar, Qāḍī ‘Ayāḍ, and Ibn Ḥajar, and others. In that case, this belief would necessitate the false statement that after the completion of the twelve Caliphs’ reign, Muḥammad (S.A.W.)’s Religion has lost its steadfastness, uprightness, and glory. Therefore, we are to accept that the Caliphate of the Prophet (S.A.W.)’s twelve Caliphs has not expired yet and is still going on. This view is in contradiction with the justifications of ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Umar and the Sunnī scholars who maintained that the reign of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)’s twelve Caliphs ended in early 2nd/8th century.

Third Evidence: The last successor to the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) is Mahdī (Aj.).

The third evidence for this discussion includes traditions some of which implicitly and some explicitly referring to Imam Mahdī (Aj.) as the last Caliph to the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.). A great number of these traditions can be found in Sunnī sources. Threes traditions also denote that the era for the Caliphate of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)’ Caliphs has not yet expired. For instance:

A. Abī Dāwūd relates in his Sunan from Ali (A.S.) who quoted the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) as saying:

Even if there remains only one day on earth, Allah will raise up a man from my progeny so that he will fill the earth with justice as it is filled with injustice and tyranny.[37]

This tradition denotes that in the End-Time a man from among the Ahl al-Bayt of the Prophet will be raised up [by Allah]; also, it suggest that he will take over the rule and Caliphate, because ridding the world of injustice and tyranny and filling it with equity and justice would only be feasible under the patronage of a mighty and pervasive rulership.

B. Similarly, Abū Dāwūd quotes the Prophet (S.A.W.) in another tradition as saying:

Even if there remains only one day on earth, Allah will elongate that day until He will raise up a man from among my progeny, whose name will be my name and whose father’s name will be my father’s name, and will fill the earth with justice and equity as it is filled with injustice and tyranny.[38]

The previous tradition is rendered more explicit in concept by the above ḥadīth. Likewise, it is understood by “until He will raise up a man…” which is stated in both traditions, that raising up of such a man will be conducted by Allah, rather than by people. This confirms the Shī‘a viewpoint concerning the appointment of an Imam and a successor to the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) to be done only by Allah. Also, in this tradition, the statement “even if there remains only one day on earth” denotes the certainty of this event.

C. In his Sunan, Ibn Māja has also related numerous traditions from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) on this issue; such as the following:

When you see him, swear allegiance to him, even if you [will have to] crawl toward him on snow. Verily, he is Mahdī, the Caliph of Allah.[39]

In this tradition, the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) has enjoined [us] to swear allegiance to Mahdī whenever we see him, even though this allegiance involves hardships, as Mahdī is the Caliph of Allah.

D. Furthermore, Ibn Māja relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.):

Some people will rise up from the East and prepare the ground for Mahdī (Aj.)’s Rule.[40]

E. In his Sunan, Tarmadhī relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.):

The world will not come to pass until a man from my Ahl al-Bayt, whose name will be my name, will come to rule over Arabs.[41]

F. In his Ṣaḥīḥ, Muslim relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) as follows:

There will lastly be among my umma a Caliph who bestows properties countlessly and profusely.[42]

The narrator says: I asked Abū Naḍra and Abū al-‘Alā if to their opinion that Caliph would be ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz. They replied, “No!”

G. In another tradition, Muslim relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.):

There will be a Caliph among your Caliphs who bestows properties countlessly and profusely.[43]

It is asserted in this tradition that the Caliph of the End-Time, who will be generous but equitable in his largesse, will be one of the Caliphs. Thus, he is one of the referents of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)’s twelve Caliphs, and as pointed out his reign will be in the End-Time, rather than in the first or second centuries, AH. Thereupon, it may be concluded that Mahdī (Aj.) will be the twelfth successor to the Apostle of Allah. Such people as Siyūṭī[44] who have regarded Mahdī (Aj.) as the awaited Caliph and from among the successors to the Apostle of Allah have undoubtedly been impressed by such traditions as mentioned above.

H. Ali (A.S.) has related from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

Mahdī is of us; the Religion will end up to him as it has been set up by us.[45]

It is concluded then that the reign of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)’s Caliphate has not ended in early second century, as presumed by the Sunnī scholars; rather, as explicitly stated in Prophetic traditions, it will end by the Caliphate of Mahdā in the End Time. Besides, it is also clarified that the Sunnī scholars’ justifications concerning the Caliphs stand in stark contrast to the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)’s traditions.

Fourth Evidence: Another interpretation on Jābir b. Samara’s tradition.

The last statement of Jābir b. Samara’s tradition has been transmitted in two ways. A great majority of Sunnī scholars have narrated the last statement of the tradition quoting the Prophet as saying: “All of them are from the Quraysh”. Although this statement means far beyond what we have in mind, but our objective is fulfilled; for the Hashemites of the Quraysh enjoy unique features: The most prominent characters, such as the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) and Ali b. Abī Ṭālib (A.S.) are from the Hashemites; the first supporters of Islam and the Prophet and the propagators of Monotheism were of the Hashemites; with their sacrifice and devotion and unsparing contributions, Islam was able to remove obstacles off its way and achieve victory.

Thus, the God who found them to be meritorious and competent enough to entrust them with the honorable banner of Prophethood, has also found them capable enough to install them as standard bearers of Imamate and Wilāya.

However, the prominent Sunnī scholar, Ḥanafī al-Qandūzī in his Yanābī‘ al-Mawadda,[46] has reported a clearer and more expressive version of the above tradition via ‘Abd al-Malik b. ‘Umair on the authority of Jābir b. Samara from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.). In this version, the statement “All of them from the Hashemites” is used instead of “All of them from the Quraysh”, which denotes the meaning in question.

What is Meant by Quraysh is the Hashemites

It had been common among the experts to restrict the “generic” to the specific. Similarly, the word Quraysh in this case is general and the Hashemites specific; hence, by applying the law of the generic and the specific, the generic would be designated to the specific, i.e., the Hashemite, since the latter is a tribe of the former. The traditions that we already presented are evidence for such designation.

Having related the tradition with the second impression, Ḥanafī al-Qandūzī goes on to say:

Some researchers have stated: Deliberation on the traditions asserting the number of the Caliphs after the Prophet (S.A.W.) to be twelve would clarify that what the Prophet meant by these traditions was the twelve Imams who were from among his own progeny. It is not possible to take the ḥadīth to mean al-Khulafā al-Rāshidūn, since they were fewer in number than twelve. Likewise, taking them as the Umayyad kings is not possible, either; since, firstly, their number was more that twelve; secondly, they were all tyrannous rulers whose lives were obviously rife with tyranny, except for ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz. Thirdly, these are not of the Hahsemites, whereas the Prophet (S.A.W.) had stated in the tradition (‘Abd al-Malik’s tradition via Jābir) that all of them are of the Hashemites.

Similarly, it is not possible to attribute this tradition to the Abbasid sultans; since, firstly, their number exceeded twelve and, secondly, they did not show much fidelity to Islamic precepts. Hence, this tradition should inevitably be attributed to the twelve Imams from among the Prophet’s progeny, as they were the most wisely aware and knowledgeable people of their time and were superior to all the people of their time in sublimity of rank, continence and piousness, and descent. More importantly, they had inherited their knowledge from their ancestor, the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.); that is how people of intuition and learning have introduced them. That the Prophet’s intention of the twelve Imams [Caliphs] was the Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.) is confirmed by many traditions related on this issue, including Ḥadīth al-Thaqalayn (two weighty things).[47]

Why Jābir failed to hear the Prophets’ Words.

Jābir’s failing to fully hear the Prophet’s words is pointed out in almost all the aforementioned traditions. Perhaps those who read these traditions may wonder why such a person as Jābir, who had so eagerly listened to the Prophet (S.A.W.)’s guiding speeches, was deprived of hearing the ending part of Prophet’s words. Searching through the Sunnī sources eventually led us to a clue in the Musnad of Aāmad Ḥanbal. Before talking about Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, however, we go on to report some other words from Ḥanafī al-Qundūzī. He said in his Yanābī‘ al-Mawadda:

When the Prophet wanted to utter the last statement of his saying, he lowered his voice, for the Umayyad and other hypocrites who were present in that gathering did not like the Hashemites.[48]

These words form Ḥanafī al-Qundūzī as to the reason for Jābir’s failure to hear the Prophet’s statement can be neither accepted nor rejected; although taking such an action by the Prophet (S.A.W.) is strongly unlikely, particularly on such an important issue.

Aāmad b. Ḥanbal has something else to say. He quotes Jābir b. Samara as saying:

The Prophet was delivering a sermon in ‘Arafāt (or Minā), and I heard him say: “This Religion will ever remain upright and evident as long as there will come to rule among you twelve Caliphs; all of them…” Then a group of people began to make a lot of noise (laghaṭa)[49] and talk together; therefore, I did not hear what the Prophet said after “all of them”. I asked my father what the Prophet said after that. My father replied: His Holiness said, “All of them are from the Quraysh.”[50]

What this group of people did denotes a secret plotting; that is to say, whenever the hypocritical faction opposing the Caliphate of Ali b. Abī Ṭālib (A.S.) and the Prophet’s progeny noticed that the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) wanted to talk to people about the issue of Caliphate, they would disturb the gathering.

Fifth Evidence: Ḥadīth al-Thaqalayn

The fifth evidence on this issue is the widely transmitted (mutawātir) Ḥadīth al-Thaqalayn (the two weighty things) which is accepted by all Muslim Umma. In the Sunnī sources, this tradition has been related from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) in various ways and wordings. Following are some examples of various versions of this ḥadīth:

1. Imam Aḥmad Ḥanbal relates via Abī Sa‘īd al-Khudrī from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

“I leave behind for you two heavy things (Thaghalayn), one of which is superior to the other; the Book of Allah, stretched from heaven down to earth; and my offspring, [that is] my Ahl al-Bayt; and they will never separate from each other until they come to [join] me at the Fountain [of Kawthar]”.[51]

2. In his Sunan, Dārimī relates via Zayd b. Arqam from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

“I leave behind for you two heavy things; the first is the Book of Allah, in which there is guidance and light, so adhere to the Book of Allah and take hold of it.” After that, he urged and encouraged to turn to it. Then he said three times: “And my Ahl Al-Bayt; I remind you to fear Allah with regard to my Ahl al-Bayt.”[52]

3. Likewise, Ḥākim al-Nīshābūrī relates via Zayd b. Arqam from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

“I leave behind for you two heavy things; the Book of Allah and my Ahl Al-Bayt; and they will never separate from each other until they come to [join] me at the Fountain [of Kawthar]”.[53]

4. In his Fayḍ al-Ghadīr, Munādī relates via Zayd b. Thābit from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

“I leave behind two successors (khalīfatayn) for you, the Book of Allah, stretched down between heaven and earth; and my offspring, [that is] my Ahl al-Bayt; and they will never separate [from each other] until they come to [join] me at the Fountain [of Kawthar]”.[54]

5. In his Sunan, Tarmadhī relates via Zayd b. Arqam from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

I leave behind for you the things that if you hold fast unto, you will never go astray, one of which is superior to the other; the Book of Allah, stretched from heaven down to earth; and my offspring, [that is] my Ahl al-Bayt; and they will never separate from each other until they come to [join] me at the Fountain [of Kawthar]”. So, see how you take them as a substitute for me.[55]

6. In his Ṣaḥīḥ, Muslim b. Ḥajjāj Nīshābūrī relates via Zayd b. Arqam from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

The Apostle of Allah delivered a sermon to us in Al-Ghadīr al-Khum; after praising and glorifying Allah, he stated: “Now then. O People! Truly, I am a man about to meet my Lord’s envoy [Angel of Death] to whom I would respond. And I leave behind for you two heavy things; the first is the Book of Allah, in which there is guidance and light, so adhere to the Book of Allah and take hold of it.” After that, he urged and encouraged to turn to it. Then he said “And my Ahl Al-Bayt; I remind you to fear Allah with regard to my Ahl al-Bayt, I remind you to fear Allah with regard to my Ahl al-Bayt, I remind you to fear Allah with regard to my Ahl al-Bayt[56].”

The Lesson we Learn from Al-Ḥadīth al-Thaqalayn:

A. First of all, the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) stated this important ḥadīth as his last will; and to his opinion, the importance of this issue is to the extent that he required it to be made a slogan as his most important testament to the Umma concerning the Book of Allah and his pure ‘Itrat.

B. The use of the word Thaqalayn in the ḥadīth indicates that these two “heavy things” are invaluable and precious, so far as it demanded the Prophet’s special emphasis.

C. The phrase wa innahumā lan yaftariqā (and they will never separate) shows that in the Muslim community the Book of Allah and the Ahl al-Bayt of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) have been together and would not separate from each other; with this companionship having started in the era of the Prophetic Mission and continuing until their joining the Holy Prophet by the Fountain of Kawthar [on the Day of Resurrection]. Likewise, we learn from the above utterance that the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)’s Ahl al-Bayt have always been aligned with the Path of the Qur’an, guidance, and felicity; for if they fall into fallacy, it would mean the separation of the Qur’an from the Ahl al-Bayt.

Similarly, it is implied from wa innahumā lan yaftariqā that there will always be from among the Ahl al-Bayt of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) someone who will be a companion to the Qur’an; since, otherwise, it would mean the separation of the Ahl al-Bayt from the Qur’an. This is a reality that a group of Sunnī scholars have admitted.[57]

D. In some versions of this tradition the word “Thaqalayn” has been substituted with “Khalīfatayn” which is quite self-evident. This phrase explicitly states that the successors of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) among the Umma are the Qur’an and the ‘Itrat.

E. Another version of the same tradition reads: “I leave behind for you the things that if you hold fast unto, you will never go astray. By the conditional phrase “if you hold fast unto”, the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) instructs us that traversing the path of guidance will be possible only by adhering and holding onto the Qur’an and ‘Itrat and nothing else.

Now, is it fair that with the presence of the Ahl al-Bayt who, as attested by the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.), were parallel to the Qur’an, some would still try to introduce such people as Mu’āwiya and Yazīd as successors to the Prophet? Is it not disrespectful to the lofty position of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) and his Ahl al-Bayt? Honestly, how deep is the difference between the Ahl al-Bayt of the Prophet who are always with the Qur’an and the Qur’an is with them and that Umayyad king who when took over the rule put the Qur’an aside and said: “This is the end of my pledge to the Qur’an”, and this way he said his farewell to the Qur’an?![58]

Sixth Evidence: The tradition of Noah’s Ark

This tradition is related from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) in various versions in the Sunnī tradition collections, examples of which are given as follows:

1. Anas b. Mālik relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

Truly, I and my Ahl al-Bayt are comparable to the Noah’s Ark, those who embark it will be rescued, and those who fail to will be drowned.[59]

2. Abū Dhar relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.):

Truly, my Ahl al-Bayt among you is comparable to the Noah’s Ark, those who embark it will be rescued, and those who fail to will be perished.[60]

3. Likewise, Abū Dhar relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.):

My Ahl al-Bayt among you is comparable to the Noah’s Ark, those from among the Noah’s folk who embarked it were rescued, and those who failed, perished; and it is [similarly] comparable to the gate of repentance (bāb Ḥiṭṭa) among the Children of Israel.[61]

4. Ibn ‘Abbās relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.):

My Ahl al-Bayt is comparable to the Noah’s Ark, those who embark it will be rescued, and those who fail to will be drowned.[62]

In a self-evident simile, the Holy Prophet has compared the story of his Umma and his Ahl a-Bayt to the story of the Prophet Noah and the people of his age. This simile quite clearly shows the status of the Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.) in the leadership of the Muslim Umma. What is implied from this saying of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) is: as in the story of Noah, only those who obeyed that great Prophet’s command and embarked the Ark were rescued, so also the guided among the Umma of the Prophet (S.A.W.) are those who enter the rescue Ark of the Umma, i.e., [resort to] the Ahla al-Bayt of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.). Those who have considered themselves independent of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)’s Ahl al-Bayt and stretched their hands to others have undoubtedly plunged into the maelstrom of annihilation.

It is indisputable that the Umayyad and Abbasid rulers not only disobeyed the Ahl al-Bayt of the Prophet (S.A.W.) but also waged war against them and killed one after another as martyrs. How could those who did not enjoy any guidance themselves provide guidance to others?

Seventh Evidence: Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.)

One of the evidences that prove the Prophet’s intention by the twelve Caliphs to have been the Imams from among the Ahl al-Bayt is the innumerable virtues uttered by the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) concerning Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.). Deliberation on the related traditions would partly familiarize us with the status of the Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.) and lead us to finding out that those about whom there has not only been no virtues narrated from the Prophet but his Holiness has on different occasions even reprimanded them, were not qualified to be appointed as Caliphs. These traditions may be divided into several groups. Some belong to the virtues of Ali (A.S.), some to the virtues of Ḥusayn (A.S.), and others to the virtues of all other Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.). Now, we point out some examples of such traditions.

A. Virtues of Ali (A.S.)

1. Zayd b. Arqam relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

Whoever I am his master, Ali is his master, too.[63]

2. Tarmadhī relates via ‘Umrān b. Ḥuṣayn from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

… Truly, Ali (A.S.) is of me and I am of him, and he is the master (Walī) of all the faithful after me.[64]

3. Sa‘d b. Abī Waqqāṣ says: I heard the Prophet saying to Ali (A.S.):

Are you not satisfied with being unto me what Hārūn was unto Mūsā, except that there would be no prophet after me?[65]

4. Burayda relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.):

Ali b. Abī Ṭālib is the master of whomever I am his master; and Ali b. Abī Ṭālib is the master of all faithful men and women, and he will be your master after me.[66]

5. Zayd b. Arqam relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.):

Let whoever is pleased to live like me and die like me and inhabit Eden’s Paradise which my Lord - the Almighty and Glorious - has promised me and has planted its trees by His Hands take Ali b. Abī Ṭālib as his master (A.S.), since he would never lead you away from guidance, and would never lead you astray.[67]

6. Barā’ b. ‘Ādhib relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.):

Ali to me is like my head to my body.[68]

7. Anas b. Mālik relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

“Who is the master of Arabs?” they replied, “You! O Rasūl Allah.” Then he said: “I am the master of the children of Adam and Ali is the master of Arabs.[69]

8. Abū Maryam Thaqafī says: I heard the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) saying to Ali (A.S.):

O Ali! Blessed is he who loves you and approves you; and woe on him who hates you and disapproves you.[70]

9. Umm Salama relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.):

The hypocrites do not like Ali, and the faithful do not hate him.[71]

10. Abī Sa‘īd al-Khudrī says:

Verily, I get to know the hypocrites through their hatred of Ali b. Abī Ṭālib.[72]

11. Abū Rāfi‘ says: The Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) said concerning Ali (A.S.):

Whoever loves him does indeed love me, and whoever loves me does indeed loves Allah; and whoever hates him does indeed hate me and whoever hates me does indeed hate Allah, the Almighty and Glorified.[73]

12. Zayd b. Arqam relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.):

The first one who turned Muslim was Ali (A.S.).[74]

13. Ibn ‘Abbās relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.):

The First one who performed ṣalāt (ritual prayer) was Ali.[75]

14. Umm Salama relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who said:

Ali is with the Truth and the Truth is with Ali; they will not separate until they come to me at the Fountain of Kawthar on the Day of Resurrection.[76]

15. Likewise, Umm Salama says: I heard from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

Ali is with the Qur’an and the Qur’an is with Ali; they will not separate until they come by the Fountain of Kawthar.[77]

16. Abū Sakhīla relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.):

Ali was the first man who acknowledged his faith in me and will be the first one who will shake hands with me on the Day of Resurrection; and he is the most veracious; and he is the distinguisher, who distinguishes between the true and the false.[78]

Ibn ‘Asākir has related the same ḥadīth via Salmān, Abū Dhar, and Ibn ‘Abbās.[79]

17. Ibn Mas‘ūd relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

Looking at Ali is worship.[80]

18. Jābir says: The Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) said to Ali (A.S.):

The one who persecutes you has [indeed] persecuted me; and the one who persecutes me has [indeed] persecuted Allah.[81]

19. Umm Salama relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who stated:

The one who curses Ali has indeed cursed me.[82]

20. Abū Rāfi‘ says: I had an audience with the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.). His holiness took my hand and said:

O Abū Rāfi‘! After me there will come a folk who will murder Ali (A.S.). Allah, the Exalted, has deemed it rightful to fight against them; those who are unable to fight with their hands, then fight with their tongues; and then if unable to fight with their tongues, fight with their heart; there is no way beyond that.[83]

21. Abī Sa‘īd al-Khudrī says: The Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) said to Ali (A.S.):

You will make war over the esoteric interpretation (ta’wīl) of the Qur’an, as I made war over its Revelation.[84]

B. The Virtues of al-Ḥusayn and al-Ḥasan (A.S.)

1. Ibn Mas‘ūd relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) who said:

Al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusayn are the masters of the Youth of Paradise.[85]

2. Anas relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.):

Verily, al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusayn are my two fragrant flowers of this world.[86]

3. Ya‘lā b. Marra relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.):

Al-Ḥusayn is of me and I am of Al-Ḥusayn.[87]

4. Abū Hurayra relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.):

Whoever loves them has loved me and whoever hates them has indeed hated me.[88]

C. Virtues of Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.)

1. Sa‘d b. Abī Waqqāṣ says: When the Āyah of Mubāhila (Al-Qur’an, 3:61) was revealed, the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) prayed Ali, Fāṭima, Al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusayn, and said: “O Allah! These are my Ahl al-BAyt.”[89]

2. Umm Salama says: The Āyah of Taṭhīr ﴾Indeed Allah desires to repel all impurity from you, O People of the Household…﴿ (Al-Qur’an, 33:33) was revealed in my house. When this Āyah was revealed, the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) sent for Ali, Fāṭima, Al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusayn, and then said: “These are my Ahl al-Bayt.”[90]

3. Salama b. Akwa‘ relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.):

The stars are made as safeguards for the inhabitants of the heaven, and my Ahl al-Bayt are indeed safeguards for my Umma. [91]

4. Zayd b.Thābit relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.):

My Ahl al-Bayt are safeguards for the inhabitants of the earth; when they go away, the inhabitants of the earth will go away, too.[92]

5. Ibn ‘Abbās relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.):

The stars are safeguards for the inhabitants of the heaven from dispersing, and my Ahl al-Bayt are safeguards for my Umma from disuniting; so, if any tribes from the Arab dispute about them, they will disunite and turn into the cabal of the Satan.[93]

6. Ali (A.S.) relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.):

O Ali! Indeed, Islam is naked; its garment is fear of God (taqwā)… and the basis of Islam is love of me and love of my Ahl al-Bayt.[94]

7. Abī Sa‘īd al-Khudrī relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.):

I swear by the One in Whose Hand lies my life that no one will bear a grudge against us, the Ahl al-Bayt, unless Allah will get him into Fire.[95]

8. Anas relates from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.):

We are the Ahl a-Bayt; no one is comparable with us.[96]

9. Abū Na‘īm relates from Ibn ‘Abbās quoting the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) as saying:

Let whoever likes to live like me and die like me and inhabit Eden’s Paradise which my Lord cultivated take Ali as his master after me, and let him obey whoever he places in charge over him, and let him follow the example of my Ahl al­-Bayt after me, for they are my progeny: they are created of my own mould and blessed with my own comprehension and knowledge. Woe unto those from among my Umma who deny their excellence and separate me from them! May Allah never permit them to enjoy my intercession.[97]

10. Abū Hurayra says:

The Prophet (S.A.W.) looked at Ali (A.S.), Fāṭima, Ḥasan and Ḥusayn and said: “I am at war with those who are at war with you at peace with those who are at peace with you.”[98]

After the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)’s demise, these recommendations about the Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.) were not only overlooked but also were taken and acted on reversely.

Since the beginning of Mu‘āwiya’s rule, and even before that, the Ahl al-Bayt of the Apostle of Allah had been cursed and insulted at pulpits and in sermons of the Friday and ‘Īd (feast day) prayers. This repulsive bid‘a (innovation) went on for forty years, until ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz banned cursing the Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.) of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) at pulpits and in public gatherings. Ironically, these acts were perpetrated by the Umayyad rulers; i.e., those who were introduced by some as successors to the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.).

God willing, in the next article we will bring up some other evidences.



[1] Al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ: Kitāb al-Aḥkām, chapter 51; Ibn Kathīr, Al-Bidāya wa al-Nihāya, I, 153, Maktaba al-Ma‘ārif; Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad, V, 90, 93, 95, Dār al-Fikr; Bayhaqqī, Dalā’il al-Nabuwwa, VI, 569, Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyya; Ṭabarānī, Mu‘jam al-Kabīr, II, 277, Printed in Iraq.

[2] Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ: Kitāb al-Amāra, chapter I, ḥadīth 7; Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad, V, 90, 100, 106; Muttaqī al-Hindī,Kanz al-‘Ummāl, XII, 32, Mu’assisa al-Risāla; Ibn Ḥajar ‘Asqalānī, Fatḥ al-Bārī, XIII, 211; Dār al-Ma‘rifa; Muḥammad ‘Umarī Tabrīzī, Mishkāt al-Masābīḥ, ḥadīth 5974, Al-Maktab al-Islāmī.

[3] Tarmazī, Sunan: Kitāb-i Fitan, chapter 46, ḥadīth, 1; Mu‘jam al-Kabīr, II, 214; Aāmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad, V, 99; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, XII, 24; Muḥammad Nāṣir al-Dīn al-Bānī, Silsilatu al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥa, Al-Maktab al-Islāmī, No. 1075.

[4] Ibn Dāwūd, Sunan, Kitāb al-Mahdī, ḥadīth 1; Al-Siyūṭī, Tārīkh al-Khulafā, 18, Dār al-Qalam; Dalā’il al-Nabuwwa, VI, 520; Fatḥ al-Bārī, XIII, 212.

[5] Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad, V, 106; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, XII, 33.

[6] Ḥākim-i Nīshābūrī, Al-Mustadrak ‘alā Ṣaḥīḥīn, III, 618, Dār al-Kitāb.

[7] Al-Siyūṭī, Tārīkh al-Khulafā, 10, RaḍīPublication.

[8] Khaṭīb al-Baghdādī, Tārīkh-i Baghdād, XIV, 353 & VI, 263, Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyya; Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad, V, 92; Muḥammad Bukhārī Ja‘fī, Al-Tārīkh al-Kabīr, I, 446, Dār al-Fikr.

[9] Mu‘jam al-Kabīr, II, 195, Dār-i Iḥyā al-Turāth; Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad, V, 99; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, XII, 32; Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ, chapter one, ḥadīth 9, Kitāb al-Amāra.

[10] Abū Na‘īm, Ḥilya al-Awliyā, IV, 333, Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiya; Mu‘jam al-Kabīr, II, 216, Printed in Iraq; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, XII, 33.

[11] Manṣūr ‘Alī Nāṣif, Al-Tāj al-Jāmi‘ li al-Uṣūl fī Aḥādīth al-Rasūl, III, 39, printed in Istanbul; Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ, Kitāb al-Imāra, chapter 1, ḥadīth 7; Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad, 5, 90; Fatḥ al-Bārī, XIII, 212.

[12] Dalā’il al-Nabuwwa, VI, 520; Fatḥ al-Bārī, XIII, 212.

[13] Kanz al-‘Ummāl, XII, 34.

[14] Muntakhab-i Kanz al-‘Ummāl, marginal notes to Musnad of Aāmad b. Ḥanbal, V, 312, Dār al-Fikr.

[15] Ḥanafī al-Qandūzī, Yanābī‘ al-Mawidda, II, 533, Raḍī Publication.

[16] Ibid, 534.

[17] Tārīkh al-Khulafā, 210.

[18] Abī Dāwūd, Musnad, ed. Ṭayyāsī, 295, Dār al-Ma‘rifa.

[19] Ibn Ḥazm, Al-Mu‘allā, IX, 395, Dār al-Āfāq.

[20] Ibn Kathīr, Tārīkh, VI, 198, Maktaba al-Ma‘ārif.

[21] Tārīkh al-Khulafa, 12.

[22] Tahdhīb-i Tārīkh-i Damishq al-Kabīr li Ibn ‘Asākir, II, 131, Dār Iḥyā al-Turāth al-‘Arabī.

[23] Tārīkh al-Khulafā, 10.

[24] Yanābī‘ al-Mawadda, II, 106.

[25] Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad, V, 106.

[26] See: Tārīkh al-KHulafā, 10-12.

[27] Fatḥ al-Bārī, XIII, 214.

[28] Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, IX, 101, Dār al-Jīl.

[29] Abī Dāwūd, Sunan, IV, kitāb al-sunna, Chapter 7.

[30] Al-Bidāya wa al-Nihāya, I, 153.

[31] Al-Tarmadhī, Sunan, chapter 48, Kitāb al-Fitan; Al-Tāj al-Jāmi‘ li al-Uṣūl, III, 40; Kanz al-Ummāl, VI, 87; Tārīkh al-Khulafā, 17, Dār al-Qalam, asserting the soundness of the ḥadīth.

[32] Tārīkh al-Khulafā, 261.

[33] Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ: Kitāb al-Amāra, chapter I, ḥadīth 7; Aḥmad Ḥanbal, Musnad, V, 90, 100, 106; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, ḥadīth 33851; Fatḥ al-Bārī, XIII, 211; Mu‘jam al-Kabīr, II, 214, Printed in Iraq.

[34] Mu‘jam al-Kabīr, II, 218, Printed in Iraq; Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ: Kitāb al-Amāra, chapter I, ḥadīth 10; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, ḥadīth 33855; Aḥmad Ḥanbal, Musnad, V, 86; Dalā’il al-Nabuwwa, VI, 324; Al-Bidāya wa al-Nihāya, VI, 220; Abī Dāwūd, Sunan, KItāb al-Mahdī.

[35] Al-Mustadrak ‘alā al-Ṣaḥīḥīn, III, 618; Haythamī, Majma‘ al-Zawā’id wa Manba‘ al-Farā’id, V, 190, Qudsī Edition. Kanz al-‘Ummāl, ḥadīth 33849; Fatḥ al-Bārī, XIII, 211; Tārīkh al-KAbīr, VIII, 411; Zubaydī, Itḥāf al-Sādat al-Muttaqīn, VII, 489, Dār al-Fikr; Mu‘jam al-Kabīr, II, 216, 236.

[36] Al-Bidāya wa al-Nihāya, I, 153; Tārīkh al-Khulafā, 10.

[37] Abū Dāwūd, Sunan, IV, Kitāb al-Mahdī; Siyūṭī, Al-Ḥāwī al-Fatāwā, II, 215 Dār al-Kitāb al-‘Arabī; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, ḥadīth 3865.

[38] Abū Dāwūd, Sunan, IV, Kitāb al-Mahdī; Mu‘jam al-Kabīr, X, 166; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, ḥadīth 38676; Al-Ḥāwī al-Fatāwā, II, 215; Aḥmad Ḥanbal, Musnad, V, 86; Siyūṭī, Durr al-Manthūr, VI, 58, Islāmiya Edition; Ibn Māja, Sunan, II, Kitāb al-Fitan, chapter 34.

[39] Ibn Māja, Sunan, II, Kitāb al-Fitan, chapter 34.

[40] Ibid.

[41] Al-Tarmadhī, Sunan, Kitāb al-Fitan, Chapter 52; Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad, I, 377, 430; Abū Na‘īm, Ḥilaytu al-Awliyā, V, 75; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, ḥadīth 38655.

[42] Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ, Kitāb al-Fitan, ḥadīths 68,69; Al-Mustadrak ‘alā al-Ṣaḥīḥīn, V, 454; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, ḥadīth 38659.

[43] Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ, Kitāb al-Fitan, ḥadīth 68.

[44] Tārīkh al-Khulafā, 12.

[45] ‘Ajlūnī, Kashf al-Khulafā wa Muzīl al-Ilbās, II, 380, Mu’assisa al-Risāla.

[46] Yanābī‘ al-Mawadda, II, 533.

[47] Ibid, 535.

[48] Ibid.

[49] Laghaṭa: commotion, tumult, and unintelligible sounds.

[50] Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad, V, 99; Mu‘jam al-Kabīr, II, 196, Dār-i Ihyā’ al-Turāth

[51] Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad, III, 14 & IV, 371; Maj‘ al-Zawā’id, IX, 257; Itḥāf al-Sāda al-Muttaqīn, X, 502, 506; Tahdhīb Tārīkh-i Damishq, V, 439; Yaḥyā Shajarī, Kitāb al-Amālī, I, 143, 149, 154, ‘Ālam al-Kutub.

[52] Al-Dārimī, Sunan, II, 432, Dār al-Fikr; Bayhaqqī, Al-Sunan al-Kubrā, II, 148 & VII, 30 & X, 114, Dār al-Ma‘rifa; Ibn Khuzayma, Saḥīḥ, No. 2357, Al-Maktab al-Islāmī.

[53] Al-Mstadrak alā al-Ṣaḥīḥīn, III, 148 asserting the soundness of the ḥadīth, Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad, III, 17; Al-Ṭabarānī, Mu‘jam al-Ṣaghīr, I, 131, I, 131, Dār al-Fikr; Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Mushkil al-Āthār, IV, 368, 369, Dār al-Niẓām, asserting the soundness of the ḥadīth, Mu‘jam al-Kabīr, V, 190, 205 “Iraq Edition”.

[54] Munāwī, Fayḍ al-Qadīr, II, 14, Dār al-Fikr; asserting the soundness of the ḥadīth; Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad, V, 182, 189; Maj‘ al-Zawā’id, IX, 162; Durr al-Manthūr, II, 60.

[55] Al-Tarmadgī, Sunan, V, 329, “Salfiya Edition”; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, I, 173; Durr al-Manṣūr, II, 60; Qāḍī ‘Ayāḍ, Al-Shifā bi Ta‘rīf-i Ḥuqūq al-Muṣṭafā, II, 105, “Fārābī Edition”; ‘Umarī Tabrīzī, Mishkāt al-Maṣābīḥ, ḥadīth 6144, Al-Maktab al-Islāmī; Itḥāf al-Sāda al-Muttaqīn, X, 507.

[56] Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ, ḥadīth 36, Kitāb-i Faḍā’il al-Ṣaḥāba; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, ḥadīth 37620; Bayhaqqī, Al-Sunan al-Ṣaqīr, II, 212, Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiya; Mu‘jam al-Kabīr, V, 183.

[57] Fayḍ al-Qadīr, III, 15.

[58] Tārikh al-Khulafā, 243.

[59] Durr al-Manṣūr, III, 334; Tārīkh-i Baghdād, 12, 91; Al-Mustadrik ‘alā al-Ṣaḥīḥīn, II, 343, asserting on the soundness of the ḥadīth.

[60] Mu‘jam al-Kabīr, III, 45; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, XII, 98.

[61] Kanz al-‘Ummāl, XII, 98; Mu‘jam al-Kabīr, III, 46.

[62] Mu‘jam al-Kabīr, XII, 27; Majma‘ al-Zawā’id, IX, 269; Ḥilya al-Awliyā, IV, 306; also see: Majma‘ al-Zawā’id, IX, 265.

[63] Tarmadhī, Sunan, V, 297; Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad, I, 84, 118, 119; Mu‘jam al-Kabīr, III, 199, Iraq Edition; Al-Mustadrik ‘alā al-Ṣaḥīḥīn, III, 110; Ḥilya al-Awliyā, IV, 23.

[64] Tarmadhī, Sunan, V, 296; Ibn Mājja, Sunan, ḥadīth 119; Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad, IV, 164, 165; Mu‘jam al-Kabīr, IV, 19, 20, Iraq Edition; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, XIII, 142.

[65] Al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ, Kitābu Faḍā’il Ṣaḥāba, Chapter on Virtues of Ali (A.S.); Tarmadhī, Sunan, V, 302; Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkhu Madīnati Damishq, XVII, 347, Dār al-Fikr, Damascus; Tārīkh al-Khulafā, 168.

[66] Tārīkhu Madīnati Damishq, XVII, 348.

[67] Majma‘ al-Zawā’id, IX, 137.

[68] Tārīkh-i Baghdād, VII, 12; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, XI, 603, ḥadīth 32914.

[69] Majma‘ al-Zawā’id, IX, 152.

[70] Ibid, 179.

[71] Tarmadhī, Sunan, V, 298; Majma‘ al-Zawā’id, IX, 181.

[72] Tārīkh al-Khulafā, 170; Tarmadhī, Sunan, V, 298.

[73] Majma‘ al-Zawā’id, IX, 177; Tārīkh al-Khulafā, 173.

[74] Tarmadhī, Sunan, V, 306.

[75] Ibid, V, 305.

[76] Tārīkh-i Baghdād, XIV, 321; Majma‘ al-Zawā’id, VII, 235; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, XI, 603.

[77] Ṭabarānī, Mu‘jam al-Awsat, V, 455; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, ḥadīth 32912; Majma‘ al-Zawā’id, IX, 183.

[78] Tārīkhu Madīnati Damishq, XVII, 306, 307.

[79] Ibid.

[80] Tārīkh al-Khulafā, 172; Majma‘ al-Zawā’id, IX, 157.

[81] Tārīkhu Madīnati Damishq, XVII, 352; Tārīkh al-Khulafā, 173; Al-Mustadrih ‘alā al-Ṣaḥīḥīn, III, 122, asserting the soundness of the ḥadīth; Al-Tārīkh al-Kabīr, VI, 307; Dalā’il al-Nabuwwa, V, 395.

[82] Majma‘ al-Zawā’id, IX, 175; Tārīkh al-Khulafā, 173.

[83] Ibid, 182.

[84] Tārīkh al-Khulafā, 173.

[85] Kanz al-‘Ummāl, XII, 112; Tarmadhī, Sunan, V, 321; Mu‘jam al-Kabīr, XII, 35; Majma‘ al-Zawā’id, IX, 286.

[86] Tarmadhī, Sunan, V, 322; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, XII, 113.

[87] Mu‘jam al-Kabīr, XII, 32, Dār Iḥyā al-Turāth; Tarmadhī, Sunan, V, 324.

[88] Majma‘ al-Zawā’id, IX, 286.

[89] Tarmadhī, Sunan, V, 302, asserting the soundness of the ḥadīth.

[90] Al-Mustadrik ‘alā al-Ṣaḥīḥīn, III, 146,

[91] Majma‘ al-Zawā’id, IX, 277; Mu‘jam al-Kabīr, XII, 22, Dār Iḥyā’ al-Turāth; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, XII, 101.

[92] Fayḍ al-Qadīr, III, 15.

[93] Al-Mustadrik ‘alā al-Ṣaḥīḥīn, III, asserting the soundness of the ḥadīth; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, XII, 102.

[94] Kanz al-‘Ummāl, XII, 105.

[95] Al-Mustadrik ‘alā al-Ṣaḥīḥīn, III, 150, asserting the soundness of the ḥadīth; See also Ibn ‘Abbās’ tradition in: Ibid, III, 149, asserting the soundness of the ḥadīth; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, XII, 42.

[96] Kanz al-‘Ummāl, XII, 104.

[97] Ḥilyat al-Awliyā, I, 86; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, XII, 106.

[98] Al-Mustadrik ‘alā al-Ṣaḥīḥīn, III, 149, asserting the soundness of the ḥadīth, Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad, II, 422; Mu‘jam al-Kabīr, III, 31; Tahdhīb-i Tārīkh-i Damishq al-Kabīr li Ibn ‘Asākir, IV, 139; Tārīkh-i Baghdād, VII, 137; Durr al-Manṣūr, V, 199.


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