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A Critical Review of the Hadith,

Author : Abbas Jalali
Subject : The Companions of Prophet
Translator : Ahmad Rezwani
Editor : Mahdi Baqi


25 May 2010
Hadith Sciences 1

Abstract

People of Sunna believe that companions of the Messenger of Allah are just and God and his Messenger have purified them. Thus if their acts contradict the Holy Quran and Sunnah, they should be justified. This hadith: “My companion is like stars, whomever you follow you are guided by them” is the most famous hadith referred to by them. In this paper, the author first deals with views presented by rijalis and famous scholars of Suunis regarding this hadith and then evaluate its reporters. He finally gives a description of characteristics of companions which this hadith refers to.

Key Words

Hadith Interpretation, Companions, Text Criticism, Document Criticism



Body

The Sunnīs believe that the Exalted Allah and His Holy Prophet have purified and cleansed the companions (ṣaḥāba) and made all of them fair-minded, and that this same criterion has to be followed and whatever the ṣaḥāba have done in opposition and contradiction to the explicit wordings of the Qur'an and sunna should be interpreted and justified. In this claim, the Sunnīs have alluded to the verses of the Qur'an and the traditions that they have related from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) on the virtues of the ṣaḥāba in their books. One of the most popular traditions that they have held on to in this respect is the ḥadīth "My companions are like stars, whomever among them you follow, you will be guided."

In this article, first we will point out the viewpoints of the renowned figures and famous scholars among the Sunnīs concerning the ḥadīth of nujūm (stars); next, we will touch upon its critiques and then evaluate the transmitters of this ḥadīth. In conclusion, we will make a passing review of the biographies of the companions whom this ḥadīth include.

The Lexical Meaning of Aṣḥāb

At the outset and in order to open up the discussion, we point out the lexical meaning of ṣuḥba, which lexically means companionship and accompaniment[1] with the plural agent nouns of ṣaḥb, aṣḥāb, and ṣaḥāba.

Rāghib writes in his mufradāt: "Conventionally, no one is called ṣāḥib except the one with whom there is plenty of companionship."[2] Thus, the companion and comrade of the Prophet (S.A.W.), in a literal sense and as the term implies, means the one who had associated with and in the company of his Holiness. Such a person, whether a Muslim or an infidel, a meritorious person or a criminal, a believer or an unbeliever, makes no difference, since this term – as Fayyūmī has also stated – applies to " Someone who had associated with him (i.e., the Prophet – S.A.W.) or had seen him."[3]

The Connotation of Ṣaḥābī:

The legal theorists and traditionists have consensus that the term ṣaḥābī is applied only to a Muslim individual. There are different statements in the definition of ṣaḥābī; what the legal theorists consider as valid is that: "Ṣaḥābī is the person who had had long association with Prophet (S.A.W.), followed him, and had adopted the Divine commands and directions through him; contrary to the one who had just had inclination toward him without having enjoyed the excellence of his companionship and subservience."

All the traditionists believe that: "Every Muslim that has met the Prophet (S.A.W.)" is a ṣaḥābī.[4]

It is also said: "The one who has perceived the time of that Holiness is a ṣaḥābī, although they have not seen him."[5]

And some have stated: "Ṣaḥābī is the one who has met the Prophet (S.A.W.) while believing in him and finally has departed from the world as a believer and Muslim, although having turned away from religion in the meantime.[6] Nevertheless, there are other views in this respect which are not of much importance.

To follow up the discussion about the ḥadīth of "stars", it is to be pointed out that this ḥadīth has been related by various phrasings of which just two is presented as follows:

1. Al-Ḥāfiẓ Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad al-Sakhāwī says: Bayhaqqī in his book Al-Madkhal relates from Sulaymān b. Abī Karīma, from Juybar, from Ḍaḥḥāk, from Ibn ‘Abbās who said: the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) said: "What is given to you from the Book of Allah brings to you knowledge and no one is excused to abandon it; and if [a ruling were] not in the Book of Allah, then refer to my past sunna; and if there were no sunna of mine available [in that respect], then whatever my companions say [would be right]. Verily, my companions are like the stars in the sky, whomever among them you emulate, you will be guided, and the difference among my umma is [a source of] mercy."[7]

2. Quḍā‘ī has related [the ḥadīth] in his Musnad Shahāb and said: Abū al-Fatḥ Manṣūr b. ‘Alī al-Anmāṭī reported to us from Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. Wathīq from Wahb b. Jurayr b. Ḥāzim from his father from A‘mash from Abī Ṣāliḥ from Abī Ḥurayra from the Prophet (S.A.W.) who said: "My companions are comparable to the stars, whomever among them you follow, you will be guided."[8]

Before examining the ḥadīth of "stars", it is to be mentioned that the Muslims are divided into three groups in their view about the ṣaḥāba and their characteristics in terms of justice and non-justice:

The first group, are those who regard all ṣaḥāba as unbelievers, such as the Kāmiliyya sect as well as those who have the same mindset in terms of extremism.[9]

The second group, are those who regard all ṣaḥāba as just and do not allow anyone to deny their narrations, believing that this competency has developed in them through their association with the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)…

Muzannī says: "All of them are reliable and trustworthy.[10] Khaṭīb says: "The ṣaḥāba's justice is established and obvious."[11] Ibn Ḥazm has said: "The ṣaḥāba are all undoubtedly inmates of paradise."[12] Similarly, Ibn ‘Abd al-Birr[13], Ibn Athīr[14], Ghazālī[15], et al. have also asserted this issue.

Some like Ibn Ḥajar (in Al-Iṣāba) have claimed consensus over this issue; however, what a group of dignitaries have asserted rules out this claim.

Ḥājib has said: "The majority believe in the ṣaḥāba's justice; and it is said that they are like the non-ṣaḥāba; and the Mu‘tazilites have said that the ṣaḥāba are just except for those who had been in war against ‘Alī (A.S.)."[16]

The third group, however, is a group of dignitaries among the Sunnīs such as Sa‘d Taftāzānī,[17] Māzirī (commentator of Burhān),[18] Ibn ‘Imād Ḥanbalī,[19] Shawkānī,[20] et al.; and from among the later generations, Shaykh Maḥmūd Abū Riyya,[21] Shaykh Muḥammad ‘Abdu,[22] Sayyid Muḥammad b. ‘Aqīl al-‘Alawī,[23] Sayyid Muḥammad Rashīd Riḍā,[24] Shaykh Muqbilī,[25] and Shaykh Muṣṭafā Ṣādiq al-Rāfi‘ī[26] believe that the ṣaḥāba are not immune from mistakes and sins and there are both just and unjust among them, which is the very attitude held by the Shī‘a.

So, the latter group is moderate and there is consensus among them that the ṣaḥāba, like the general public, consist of the just, unjust, pious, impious, faithful, and hypocrite, too; and that the mere companionship and association with the Prophet (S.A.W.), however honorable to them, may not in itself make them immune from mistakes and sins and rule out evils from them. Similarly, the Holy Qur'an has in many instances pointed out the ṣaḥāba who had been hypocritical in certain aspects and there are many traditions from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) condemning and rebuking them, which will be dealt with in the section where we will examine the states of the ṣaḥāba.

The Ḥadīth of "Stars" in View of the Sunnī Leaders

Now, let us see what the Sunnī experts of ḥadīth and the prominent figures among them have to say concerning the ḥadīth of nujūm:

Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal (d. 241/855): He is the head of Ḥanbalī School, about whom Dhahabī says: "Shaykh al- Islām, Sayyid al-Muslimīn fī ‘Aṣrihī, al-Ḥāfiẓ al-Ḥujja…(The Shaykh of Islam, master of the Muslims in his time, the preserver of the proof…)" His biography is given in such biographical (rijālī) lexicons as Ta’rīkh-i Baghdād, Ḥilyat al-Awliyā, Ṭabaqāt-i Shāfi‘īyya, Tadhkira al-Ḥuffāẓ, Wafayāt al-A‘yān, Shadharāt al-Dhahab, and al-Nujūm al-Zāhira.

He views the ḥadīth of nujūm as unsound and several scholars such as Ibn Amīr al-Ḥāj in his Al-Taqrīr wa al-Taḥbīr, Ibn Qudāma in his Al-Muntakhab, and the author of Al-Taysīr fī Sharḥ al-Taḥrīr[27] have related his (Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal's) view.

Al-Muzannī, Shāfi‘ī's disciple, (d. 264/877): Authors of lexicons, including the authors of Wafayāt al-A‘yān, Mir’āt al-Jinān, Ṭabaqāt-i Shāfi‘īyya, Al-Ibar, and Ḥusn al-Muḥāḍara, have mentioned him. Yāfi’ī has said about him: "Al-Faqīh Abū Ibrāhīm…was a devoted and pious master jurist." And Shāfi‘ī has regarded him to be the supporter of his dīn (faith). Al-Muzannī does not view the ḥadīth of nujūm as sound. We have found out about his view of the aforementioned ḥadīth through what Ibn ‘Abd al-Birr has said in this respect:

Al-Muzannī, may God have Mercy on him, has said about the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)'s saying "My companions are like stars" that if this tradition is true, it means whatever the companions have related from the Prophet and attested to what he had said…"

And the phrase "if this tradition is true" is what we believe is suggesting that Muzannī has been doubtful about the authenticity of the ḥadīth of nujūm and its truth has not been evident to him. Shāfi‘ī's renowned disciple goes on to say:

"As for what they have said according to their own opinions [and not the Prophet's]: If they had had such a belief themselves, they would not have ascribed flaws to one another and would not have protested one another and none of them would have referred to his friend's sayings…so, be careful."[28]

Nāṣir al-Dīn Albānī (a contemporary scholar), while rejecting the meaning that Muzannī has implied from this phrase of the words of ḥadīth, states that:

The ḥadīth is ostensibly opposite to the meaning that al-Muzannī has implied from it; rather, what is meant here is what they say according to their own opinions, and thus the meaning of the ḥadīth, in itself, is another reason that the ḥadīth is fabricated and is not from the Prophet (S.A.W.)'s sayings, since how would it behoove us to imagine that the Prophet (S.A.W.) permits us to follow any of the companions while there had been among them both the learned, the mediocre, as well as the lower ones in knowledge…"

Abū Bakr al-Bazzār (d. 292/904): Among the biographical lexicons that have given al-Bazzār's biography, the following can be mentioned: Ta’rīkh al-Khaṣīb, Tadhkirat al-Ḥuffāẓ, Shadharāt al-Dhahab, Ta’rīkh Isbahān, and Mīzān al-I‘tidāl.

Al-Bazzār has disapproved and censured the ḥadīth of nujūm and stated its weak points. The exact wordings of Ibn ‘Abd al-Birr in this regard is as follows:

Abū al-Ḥasan b. Muḥammad b. Ayyūb al-Riqqī reported to us from Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. ‘Amr b. ‘Abd al-Khāliq al-Bazzār who said: You asked about what is related to us from the Prophet (S.A.W.) which is available to the Sunnīs who quote the Prophet (S.A.W.) as saying: "My companions are comparable to the stars, – or are like stars – whomever among them you follow, you will be guided." He said: This saying of the Prophet (S.A.W.) has not been proved as sound. ‘Abd al-Raḥīm b. Zayd al-‘Ammī has related this from his father, who related it from Sa‘d b. Musayyib on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar from the Prophet (S.A.W.); or perhaps ‘Abd al-Raḥīm has related it from his father on the authority of the latter's father. The weakness of this ḥadīth is on the side of ‘Abd al-Raḥīm b. Zayd, because the scholars have avoided relating ḥadīth from him.[29]

And thus disapproval of the ḥadīth of nujūm is clearly evident in Bazzār's words.

Ibn ‘Adiyy (d. 365/975): He is highly praised by the authors of lexicons, including Tadhkira al-Ḥuffāẓ, Shadharāt al-Dhahab, and Mir’āt al-Janān.

Sam‘ānī says about him: "He was an accurate memorizer of ḥadīth who was matchless in his time", and Ḥamza b. Yūsif al-Sahmī says: "I asked al-Dārquṭnī to write a book about the weak traditionists; he said in response to my enquiry: Is Ibn ‘Adiyy's book not at your disposal?"

Ibn ‘Adiyy, known as Ibn Qaṭṭān, has related the ḥadīth of nujūm in his book (Al-Kāmil) – which is on introducing the weak traditionists and their fabrications – in the biography of Ja‘far b. ‘Abd al-Wāḥid al-Hāshimī Al-Qāḍī and Ḥamza al-Jazarī al-Naṣībī, which we will touch upon later on in the words of Zayn al-Dīn ‘Iraqī. He has disapproved the sanad of the ḥadīth of nujūm by discrediting the transmitters of this ḥadīth, including Ḥamza al-Naṣībī.

Abū al-Ḥasan Dārquṭnī (d. 385/996): He is among the dignitaries of the traditionists and is mentioned in Tadhkira al-Ḥuffāẓ, Wafayāt al-‘Ayān, Al-Mukhtaṣar, Ta’rīkh al-Khaṭīb, and other books. Furthermore, Ibn Kathīr says about him: "He was peerless in his time, unparalleled in his individually, and the leader of his age."

Dārquṭnī has related the ḥadīth of nujūm in his book (Gharā’ib Mālik) and regarded it as a weak tradition. Ibn Ḥajar al-‘Asqalānī has also related this issue from him.[30]

Ibn Ḥazm (d. 456/1063): His biography has been given in such books as Nafḥ al-Ṭīb, al-‘Ibar, Wafayāt al-A‘yān, Tāj al-‘Arūs, and Lisān al-Mīzān.

Ibn Ḥazm has also impugned the ḥadīth of nujūm, judged it as invalid, and viewed it as a fabricated ḥadīth. Some, including Abū Ḥayyān have also related this view from Ibn Ḥazm. When reporting the ḥadīth, Abū Ḥayyān said the following:

Al-Ḥāfiẓ Abī Muḥammad ‘Alī b. Aḥmad b. Ḥazm has said in his treatise (Ibṭāl al-Ra’y wa al-Qiyās wa al-Istiḥsān wa al-Ta‘līl wa al-Taqlīd): This [i.e., ḥadīth of nujūm] is a false, fabricated, and untrue ḥadīth, not regarded as sound, at all."[31]

Bayhaqqī (d. 458/1065): His biography is recounted in Shadharāt al-Dhahab, and Al-Badr al-Ṭāli‘, Ṭabaqāt al-Shāf‘īyya, Al-‘Ibar, Al-Nujūm al-Zāhir, Wafayāt al-A‘yān, and Tadhkirat al-Ḥuffāẓ. Ibn Taghrī Birdī[32] has said about him:

Aḥmad b. Ḥusayn b. ‘Alī b. ‘Abd Allāh al-Ḥāfiẓ Abū Bakr al-Bayhaqqī was peerless in his time in ḥadīth and fiqh (jurisprudence).

As Ibn ‘Asqalānī has related from him, Bayhaqqī in his Al-Madkhal has regarded the ḥadīth of nujūm as weak.[33]

Ibn ‘Abd al-Birr (d. 463/1070): His biography is given in Wafayāt al-A‘yān, Mir’āt al-Janān, Al-Mukhtaṣar, Tadhkirat al-Ḥuffāẓ, etc. Dhahabī in his Mīzān al-I‘tibār has described him as: "Al-Imām Shaykh al-Islām, the memorizer of al-Maghrib", and Ibn Ḥazm said: "I do not know any one like him in ḥadīth comprehension, at all."

About the ḥadīth of nujūm, he said:

Abū Shahāb al-Ḥannāt relates from Ḥamza al-Jizrī from Nāfi‘ from Ibn ‘Umar quoting the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) as saying: "My companions are comparable to the stars, whomever among them you adopt his words, you will be guided." This isnād is not true, and those who argue about this ḥadīth do not relate it from Nāfi‘."

In this ḥadīth, he has given an isnād other than the one Bazzār has related from Salām b. Sulaym. His isnād is as follows:

Al-Ḥārith b. Ghuṣayn has related to us from A‘mash from Abū Sufyān, from Jābir quoting the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) as saying: "My companions are like stars, whomever among them you follow, you will be guided." Abū ‘Amr said: This isnād does not have validity, since al-Ḥārith b. Ghuṣayn is unknown.[34]

Therefore, he has discredited the chain of transmission aspect of the ḥadīth by discrediting Ḥārith b. Ghuṣayn as one of the rijāl (transmitters) of the sanad.

Ibn ‘Asākir (d. 571/1175): He has been mentioned with much praise in such biographical books as Mu‘jam al-Udabā, Wafiyāt al-A’yān, Tadhkira al-Ḥuffāẓ, Duwal al-Islām, Mir’āt al-Janān, Ṭabaqāt al-Shāfi‘īyya, Al-Mukhtaṣar fī Akhbār al-Bashar, and Jāmi‘ Masānīd of Abū Ḥanīfa. Yāfi‘ī says about Ibn ‘Asākir: "A proficient jurist, leader, and traditionist."

He (Ibn ‘Asākir), as described by Manāwī and will be recounted later on, quite explicitly pointed out the weakness of the ḥadīth of nujum.

Ibn Jawzī (d. 597/1200): His biography is given with praise and admiration in Ta’rīkh Ibn Kathīr, Wafiyāt al-A‘yān, Tatammat al-Mukhtaṣar, al-A‘lām, etc. Ibn Khallakān said about him: "Abū al-Faraj ‘Abd al-Raḥmān b. Abū al-Ḥasan…b. Muḥammad b. Ja‘far al-Jawzī, the Ḥanbalī jurist, was the most learned scholar of his time."

Ibn Jawzī comments about the ḥadīth of nujūm as follows:

Nu‘aym b. Ḥammād is quoted as saying: ‘Abd al-Rāmān b. Zayd al-‘Ammī related to us from Sa‘īd b. Musayyib from ‘Umar b. al-Khaṭṭāb that the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) has said: "I asked my Lord about what my companions would differ in after me. Then, He revealed to me: O Muḥammad! To Me your companions are like stars in the sky, some of them are brighter than others; so, to Me, whoever takes hold of any of the things they differ about would be rightly guided."

And he goes on to add:

The soundness of this tradition is uncertain on the side of two transmitters, hence unreliable; one is Nu‘aym b. Ḥammād who is discredited and disapproved, and the other is ‘Abd al-Rāmān b. Zayd al-‘Ammī about whom Yaḥyā b. Mu‘īn has said: "‘Abd al-Rāmān is a liar."[35]

Ibn Diḥya (d. 623/1234): His biography is respectfully reported in Bughyat al-Wu‘ā, Sharḥ al-Mawāib al-Ladunniyya,Wafiyāt al-A‘yān, Ḥusn al-Muḥāḍira, and Nafḥ al-Ṭīb. In his Ḥusn al-Muḥāḍara, Al-Suyūṭī has said about him: "Al-Imām al-‘Allāma, the great memorizer, was insightful on ḥadīth, and…"

Ibn Daḥīyya has discredited the ḥadīth of nujūm and denied its soundness. His very words as quoted by Zayn ‘Irāqī in this respect are as follows:

Ibn Daḥīyya has said: "I have related the ḥadīth (My companions are like stars); this ḥadīth is not sound."[36]

Abū Ḥayyān al-Andalusī (d. 745/1344): He has been praised in such books as Al-Durar al-Kāmina fī A‘yān al-Mi’at al-Thāmina, Al-Wāfī bi al-Wafiyāt, Bughyat al-Wu‘ā, Al-Badr al-Ṭāli‘, Ṭabaqāt al-Qurā’, Nafḥ al-Ṭīb, Ṭabaqāt al-Shāfi‘īya, Al-Nujūm al-Zāhir, etc. Ibn ‘Imād said about him: "Al-Imām Athīr al-Dīn Abū Ḥayyān, the renowned grammarian of his time and a philologist, interpreter, and traditionist…"

He has an interesting research about the ḥadīth of nujūm which we will partly quote here because of its usefulness. First, he relates the following from al-Zamakhsharī:

Al-Zamakhsharī said: If you ask how the Qur'an elucidates everything, I would say it means that the Qur'an has explicated everything of world's affairs; it has asserted some of them and has referred some to sunna since He (Allah) has commanded to follow the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) and obey him, and has said: ﴾Nor does he speaks out of [his own] desire﴿ and the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) has permitted his umma to follow his companions and emulate his deeds as he said: "My companions are like stars, whomever among them you follow, you will be guided"; they were mujtahid (master jurists) and applied analogy (qiyās) as well. They opened up the way to qiyās and ijtahād.

Then, he went on to criticize Zamakhsharī's saying:

His saying that: "the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) has permitted his umma …" up to "… you will be guided" is not uttered by the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) and this ḥadīth is by no means true to be from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.).

He states that Ḥāfiẓ Abū Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Ḥazm has also said in his treatise (Ibṭāl al-Ra’y wa al-Qiyās):

This [i.e., the ḥadīth of nujūm] is a tradition which is a fabricated lie against the Prophet (S.A.W.). The people relate from the Prophet (S.A.W.) as saying: "My companions are comparable to the stars – or are like stars –, whomever among them you follow, you will be guided". This saying does not belong to the Prophet (S.A.W.). ‘Abd al-Raḥīm b. Zayd al-‘Ammī has related on the authority of his father from Sa‘īd b. Nusayyib from Ibn ‘Umar from the Prophet (S.A.W.). The weakness of this ḥadīth is on the side of ‘Abd al-Raḥīm, as the scholars have avoided transmitting his ḥadīth.

It is to be said that the popular biographer, Ibn Mu‘īn, has commented in his Al-Mawḍū‘āt about ‘Abd al-Raḥīm b. Zayd al-‘Ammī, one of the transmitters in the above ḥadīth, as follows: "‘Abd al-Raḥīm b. Zayd is a liar and untrustworthy." Similarly, Bukhārī has said in his Al-Ḍua‘fā: "He [i.e., ‘Abd al-Raḥīm] is abandoned" and said about Ḥamza al-Jazarī, another transmitter who has also narrated the ḥadīth: "This Ḥamza is disreputable and abandoned."

Shams al-Dīn Dhahabī (d. 748/1347): Books of biography, including Al-Durar al-Kāmina, Ṭabaqāt al-Shāfi‘īya, Fawāt al-Wafiyāt, Al-Badr al-Ṭāli‘, Al-Nujūm al-Zāhir, Ṭabaqāt al-Qurā’, and others have praised him. Ibn Taghrī Birdī said about him: "Al-Shaykh, al-Imam, the memorizer, the historian, and the author of fruitful writings."

Dhahabī has in numerous cases discredited the ḥadīth of nujum in his Mīzān al-I‘tidāl fī Naqd al-Rijāl. For instance, in a biography of Ja‘far b. ‘Abd al-Wāhid Hāshimī al-Qāḍī, after quoting the scholars' sayings about him, he adds:

Among his evils is his narration on the authority of Wahab b. Jarīr from his father from A‘mash from Abū Ṣāliḥ from Abū Ḥarīra, from the Prophet (S.A.W.) that: "My companions are like stars, whomever among them you follow, you will be guided."[37]

In another instance writing the biography of Zayd al-‘Ammī, and after relating the ḥadīth, he said: "It is invalid."[38]

Tāj al-Dīn, Ibn Maktūm (d. 749/1348): His biography is presented with praise in Al-Durar al-Kāmina, Ḥusn al-Muḥāḍara, Ṭabaqāt al-Qurā’, Al-Jawhar al-Maḍī’a fī Ṭabaqāt al-Ḥanafiya, etc. Siyūṭī has said about him: "Ibn Maktūm Tāj al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad al-Qaysī was an embodiment of jurisprudence and philology."

Attesting to the sayings of his teacher, Abū Ḥayyān, whom we have mentioned before, he (Ibn Maktūm) has related his very statement about the ḥadīth of nujūm from Al-Baḥr al-Muḥīṭ in his (Ibn Maktūm's) Al-Durar al-Laqīṭ min Baḥr al-Muḥīṭ. [39]

Muḥyī al-Dīn, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawzī (d. 751/1350): Books of biography have mostly mentioned him; they include A‘lām al-Muwaqqi‘īn, Al-Durar al-Kāmina, Al-Badr al-Ṭāli‘, Al-Wāfī bi al-Wafiyāt, Bughya al-Wu‘ā, and Ta’rīkh Ibn Kathīr. Ibn Kathīr says about him: "On Thursday night…our friend, Al-Shaykh al-Imam al-‘Allāma Shams al-Dīn, the leader of al-Jawziya and their custodian, died."

He has discredited the ḥadīth of nujūm and has commented in rejection of the "imitators" and their reasons as follows:

The forty fifth reason is this saying of theirs: For the validity of imitation this well-known ḥadīth suffices that: "My companions are like the stars, whomever among them you follow, you will be guided." The answer to this saying can be given from several perspectives: One is that this ḥadīth has been transmitted by way of Al-A‘mash from Abī Sufyān b. Jābir from the Sa‘īd b. al-Musayyib's ḥadīth from Ibn ‘Umar, and by way of Ḥamza al-Jazrī from Nāfi‘ from Ibn ‘Umar, and none of them is valid [and reliable].

He goes on to say:

Ibn ‘Abd al-Birr said: Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm b. Sa‘īd has related to us that Ibn Abā ‘Abd Allāh b. Mufarraḥ has narrated to him on the authority of Muḥammad b. Ayyūb Ṣamūt that Bazzār has said: As for what is related from the Prophet (S.A.W.) as having said, "My companions are like the stars, whomever among them you follow, you will be guided" is not a sound ḥadīth from the Prophet (S.A.W.).[40]

Zayn al-Dīn al-‘Irāqī (d. 806/1403): His biography can be seen in all biographical lexicons including Ṭabaqāt al-Qurā’, Al-Ḍaw’ al-Lāmi‘, Al-Badr al-Ṭāli‘, and Shadharāt al-Dhahab. Ibn ‘Imād has said about him in the events of the year 806/1404: "The memorizer [of the Qur'an] Zayn al-Dīn ‘Abd al-Raḥīm b…al-‘Irāqī al-Shāfi‘ī, the memorizer of the age…"

Zayn al-Dīn al-‘Irāqī has the following to say about the ḥadīth of nujūm:

The ḥadīth "My companions are like the stars, whomever among them you follow, you will be guided" has been related by Dārquṭnī in Al-Faḍā’il, and Ibn ‘Abd al-Birr in Al-‘Ilm by the authority of Jābir's ḥadīth, and he (‘Abd al-Birr) says: "This isnād is not authentic, since al-Ḥarith b. Ghuṣayn is unknown.

He also relates:

‘Abd b. Ḥamīd has related it in his Musnad from the narration of ‘Abd al-Raḥīm b. Zayd al-‘Ammī from his father Ibn Musayyib on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar and stated that Bazzār has said about this ḥadīth: "It is disaffirmed and unsound".

Similarly, Ibn ‘Adīyy has related it in Al-Kāmil from the narration by Ḥamza b. Abī Nuṣaybī from Nāfi‘ from ‘Umar by the phrase "whomever among them you adopt his words, you will be guided" and said that "its isnād is weak because of the presence of Abū Ḥamza, as he is accused of lying."

Also, Bayhaqqī in his Al-Madkhal has related it from ‘Amr from the narration by Ibn ‘Abbās and the same ḥadīth in another way with an incomplete isnād (mursal) and said that: "Its text is generally transmitted (mashhūr) and its asānīd are weak and the isnād is not proved.

Ibn Ḥajar ‘Asqalānī (d. 852/1448): All biographical lexicons, including Ḥusn al-Muḥāḍira, Al-Badr al-Ṭāli‘, Al-Ḍaw’ al-Lāmi‘, and Shadharāt al-Dhahab have alluded to him with respect. Siyūṭī says about him: "He was leading among the memorizers in his time, the chief justice (qāḍī al-quḍāt), and …"

Ibn Ḥajar's comment concerning the ḥadīth of nujūm is as follows:

The ḥadīth "My companions are like stars, whomever among them you follow, you will be guided" is related by ‘Abd b. Ḥamīd in his Musnad on the authority of Ḥamza al-Naṣībī from Nāfī‘ from Ibn ‘Amr; and Ḥamza is very weak [in transmission of ḥadīth].

He also says:

Dārquṭnī has related the ḥadīth "My companions are like stars, whomever among them you follow, you will be guided" in his Al-Mu’allif on the authority of the narration by Salām b. Sulaym from al-Ḥārith b. Ghuṣayn from A‘mash from Abī Sufyān from Jābir in a marfū‘ manner and said: "Salām [b. Sulaym] is weak" and has related it by way of Ḥamīd b. Zayd in Gharā’ib Mālik from Ja‘far b. Muḥammad from His father from Jābir along with a ḥadīth in which it is related: "Then, whomever among my companions that you take his words, you will be guided; indeed, my companions are comparable to stars, whoever follows one star from among them will be guided" and has said: "It is not proved to be from Mālik, and its transmitters, except for Mālik, are unknown."

And Khaṭīb has related it in Al-Ruwāt on the authority of Mālik from Ḥasan b. Mahdī from ‘Abdat al-Marwizī from Muḥammad b. al-Sakūnī, from Bakr b. ‘Īsā al-Marwazī from Abū Yaḥyā from Jamīl and viewed its transmitters as weak.

And ‘Abd b. Ḥamīd and Dārquṭnī has related it in Al-Faḍā’il from the ḥadīth of Ḥamza Jazaraī from Nāfi‘ from Ibn Ḥamza and said: "Ḥamza has been accused of fabrication of ḥadīth."

And Ibn Ṭāhir [the author of Qānīn al-Mawḍū‘āt] has related it from the tradition of Bushr b. Ḥasan from Zubayrī, from Anas: "And Bushr was accused, too."

And Bayhaqqī has related it in Al-Madkhal from the narration of Juwaybir from Ḍaḥḥāk, from Ibn ‘Abbās: "and Juwaybir is abandoned". Also, he has related it from the narration of Juwaybir from Jawwāb b. ‘Ubayd Allāh in a marfū‘ (uplifted) manner, "and it is mursal (incomplete in chain of transmitters)". Similarly, he has related the following in Al-Madkhal from Ibn ‘Umar:

[The Prophet (S.A.W.):] "I asked my Lord about what my companions would differ in after me. Then, He revealed to me: O Muḥammad! To Me your companions are like stars in the sky, some of them are brighter than others; so, to Me, whoever takes hold of any of the things they differ about would be rightly guided." And "Among the isnād (chains of transmission) of this ḥadīth is ‘Abd al-Raḥīm b. Zayd al-‘Ammī who is abandoned [invalid]."[41]

Ibn al-Hammām (d. 861/1456): His biography is presented in Al-Badr al-Ṭāli‘, Ḥusn al-Muḥāḍira, Buqya al-Wu‘ā’, Hadiyya al-‘Ārifīn, Al-Taysīr fī Sharḥ al-Taḥrīr, Shadharāt al-Dhahab, etc. Ibn ‘Imād has said about him in the events of the year 861/1456: "And in that year…Ibn al-Hammām al-Ḥanafī, the leading Ḥanafī scholar died." He is among the great Ḥanafī scholars; he has commented in the discourse about ijmā‘ (consensus) and in response to the ḥadīth of iqtidā’ (following the example of) and the ḥadīth of ‘alykum bi sunnatī (i.e., follow my example):

It is replied that: These two traditions denote the worthiness of iqtidā’ (following the example of), rather than prohibition of ijtihād (personal judgment). Therefore, although this ḥadīth (iqtidā’) indicates necessity, what rejects it is that this ḥadīth is among the āḥād (traditions given by a single narrator) and also contradicts the ḥadīth "My companions are like stars, whomever among them you follow, you will be guided," and the ḥadīth "Take half of your religion from Al-Ḥumayrā (Ā‘isha)". Of course, the first ḥadīth [i.e., the ḥadīth of nujūm] is not known.[42]

Ibn Amīr al-Ḥāj (d. 879/1474): His biography is given in Al-Ḍaw’ al-Lāmi‘, Shadharāt al-Dhahab, and Al-Badr al-Ṭāli‘. Ibn ‘Imād has said about him: "Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad b. … known as Ibn Amīr al-Ḥāj al-Ḥalabī al-Ḥanafī, the head of Ḥanafī scholars in Aleppo.

He has clearly stated the weakness and invalidity of the ḥadīth of nujūm:

It is also replied that: Each one of these two (ḥadīth of iqtidā’ and ‘alaykum bi sunnatī) contradicts the ḥadīth "my companions are like stars, whomever among them you follow, you will be guided," and with the ḥadīth "take half of your religion from Ā‘isha"; however it may be opposite to the words of the two Sahykhs [Muslim and Bukhārī] or the four Shaykhs [authors of Asānīd]. Of course, the first ḥadīth [i.e., the ḥadīth of stars] is not known.

He also said:

According to Ibn Ḥazm in his significant treatise, it is an invalid and fabricated ḥadīth, although it has its own ways (ṭuruq) of transmission through ‘Amr b. ‘Umar, Jābir, Ibn ‘Abbās, and Anas in different wordings, the closest of which to the wordings of the ḥadīth is the one reported from ‘Umar by Ibn ‘Adiyy in Al-Kāmil and Ibn ‘Abd al-Birr in Bayān al-‘Ilm as follows: The Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) said: "My companions are comparable to the stars by which the people are guided, whomever among them you adopt his words, you will be guided."

And the ḥadīth that Dārquṭnī and Ibn ‘Abd al-Birr have related from Jābir is as follows:

The Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) said: "My companions among my umma are like stars, whomever among them you follow, you will be guided". Yes, nothing of this ḥadīth is true, and for this reason Aḥmad said: "The ḥadīth is unsound" and Al-Bazzār said: "This ḥadīth is not true to be from the Prophet (S.A.W.)." Meanwhile, Bayhaqqī has said in his Al-I‘tiqād: We have related this report in an uninterrupted (mawṣūl) tradition with a not-strong enough sanad (chain of transmission) and in another ḥadīth with an interrupted [munqaṭi‘] sanad.

Similarly, Abū Dhar al-Ḥalabī (the commentator of Shafā) has said about the ḥadīth of nujūm in protest to Qāḍī ‘Ayāḍ: "It behooved Qāḍī not to mention this ḥadīth [the ḥadīth of nujūm] in a decisive manner because of what he has learned with the experts; we have already frequently reiterated the like of this.

Sakhāwī (d. 902/1496): His biography is given in most of the biographical and historical books such as Shadharāt al-Dhahab, Mafākiha al-Khallān, Al-Ḍaw’ al-Lāmi‘, Al-Badr al-Ṭāli‘, and Al-Nūr al-Sāfir. Ibn ‘Imād has said about him in the events of the year 861/1456: "And in that year, Al-Ḥāfiẓ Shams al-Dīn…Muḥammad al-Sakhāwī died; he excelled in jurisprudence, Arabic, and the Qur'an."

Sakhāwī says: Bayhaqqī in Al-Madkhal has talked about the ḥadīth "The difference among my umma is mercy" and the ḥadīth of iqtidā’. After mentioning ḥadīth of nujūm, he comments about the chain of transmitters and narrators as follows:

Thus, Ṭabarānī and Daylamī are unanimous in their musnads that: "Jubayr is weak and the narration of al-Ḍaḥḥāk from Ibn ‘Abbās is interrupted."[43]

Ibn Abī Sharīf (d. 906/1500): His biography is given in Al-Ḍaw’ al-Lāmi‘, Al-Badr al-Ṭāli‘, and al-Uns al-Jalīl. Ibn ‘Imād has commented about him: "He is al-Shaykh, al-Imam, al-Shaykh al-Islam, the king of the notable scholars."

Quoting his master, Ibn ‘Asghalānī, he has discredited the ḥadīth of nujūm, which will be brought up in later sections in the sayings of Manāwī.

Jalāl al-Dīn Suyūṭī (d. 911/1505): His biography is related in such books as Ḥusn al-Muḥāḍira, Al-Badr al-Ṭāli‘, Shadharāt al-Dhahab, and Mafākiha al-Khullān. Ibn ‘Imād has said about him in the events of the year 911/1505: "And in that year, the memorizer Jalāl al-Dīn al-Suyūṭī…the author of many useful writings, died."

Suyūṭī has quoted the ḥadīth of nujūm in his Al-Jāmi‘ al-Ṣaghīr min Aḥādīth al-Bashīr al-Nadhīr, and in the end marked it with the letter "ḍ" [ḍa‘īf = weak], which was his code for weakness of the ḥadīth.[44]

‘Alī Muttaqī Hindī (d. 957/1567): His biography is recorded with compliments in Al-Nūr al-Sāfir, Subḥa al-Marjān, Shadharāt al-Dhahab, and Abjad al-‘Ulūm. Ibn ‘Imād has said about him: "‘Alī al-Muttaqī, was from among the practicing scholars and the pious servants of Allah."

He (Muttaqī) has pointed out the ḥadīth of nujūm in his famous book Kanz al-‘Ummāl as well as in muntakhabu Kanz and has proclaimed it to be weak in the same way as Suyūṭī (his master) did.

‘Alī Qārī (d. 1014/1605): His biography is related in Khulāṣa al-Athar, Al-Badr al-Ṭāli‘, and Kashf al-Ẓunūn. Muḥibbī has commented about him: "‘Alī b. Muḥammad…known as al-Qārī, resident in Mecca and one of the fountainheads of knowledge, and peerless in his time."

He says about the ḥadīth of nujūm:

Ibn al-Dayba‘ has said that Ibn Mājja has related the ḥadīth "My companions are like stars, whomever among them you follow, you will be guided" and also Jalāl al-Dīn al-Suyūṭī has reported it in Takhrīj Aḥādīth al-Shifā. And, Ibn Ḥajar has quoted it in Takhrīj Aḥādīth al-Rāfi‘ī in the chapter Adab al-Qaḍā and has sufficiently talked about it, adding that: "This ḥadīth is weak and insignificant"; furthermore, he has quoted Ibn Ḥazm as saying: "This [i.e., ḥadīth of nujūm] is fabricated and invalid."

Manāwī (1029/1619): His biography is given in Khulāṣa al-Athar, Al-Badr al-Ṭāli‘, Al-A‘lām, etc. Muḥibbī has commented about him: "… Zayn al-Dīn al-Ḥaddādī thumm al-Manāwī, [was] a great religious leader, an authoritative and trustable exemplar."

In exposition of the ḥadīth "I asked my Lord about what my companions would differ in…," Mnāwī states:

Ibn Jawzī has related in Al-‘Ilal: "This ḥadīth is not sound" and Nu‘aym [one of its transmitters] is discredited; and Ibn Mu‘īn has viewed ‘Abd al-Raḥīm as liar and untrustworthy and related in Al-Mīzān: "This ḥadīth is invalid."[45] Similarly, Ibn Ḥajar has said in Takhrīj al-Mukhtaṣar: It [the ḥadīth of nujūm] is an unusual tradition about which Bazzār was asked and he replied: "This saying is not from the Prophet (S.A.W.)." Also, Kamāl b. Abī Sharīf said: "It is implied from the words of our teacher (Ibn Ḥajar) that this ḥadīth [of nujūm] is a disordered tradition." Ibn Sa‘d said: "Zayd al-‘Ammī Abū al-Ḥawārī was weak I ḥadīth …" And Ibn ‘Adīyy said: "All of the traditions narrated from him are weak."[46]

Similarly, Sindy said after relating the ḥadīth of thaqalayn and its significance: "And if you say it is related: 'My companions are like stars, whomever among them you follow, you will be guided' and it is related: 'Follow those who come after me [al-Shaykhayn – i.e., Abū Bakr and ‘Umar]' and it is related: 'Follow my sunna and the sunna of Khulafā al-Rāshidīn [the rightly guided caliphs]', and thus, encouragement to follow others and the guidance of those who follow them is established, I would say in response: The first ḥadīth [the ḥadīth of nujūm] is fabricated, otherwise the phrase "you will be guided" in this ḥadīth indicates their being free from error…"[47]

Shahāb al-Khafājī (d. 1096/1684): Biographical sources such as Khulāṣa al-Athar, Rayḥāna al-’Abā wa al-A‘lām, have given his biography. Muḥibbī has said about him: "Al-Shaykh Aḥmad b. Muḥammad…Shahāb al-Dīn al-Khafājī, the author of numerous books."

In his Sharḥ al-Shifā’, he has admitted the weakness of ḥadīth of nujūm.[48]

Qāḍī Biḥārī (d. 1119/1707): His biography is given in Subḥa al-Marjān (among the Indian scholars), Al-A‘lām, Abjad al-‘Ulūm, Kashf al-Ẓunūn, Hidya al-‘Ārifīn, Īḍāḥ al-Maknūn, etc. Zirkilī said: "Muḥib al-Dīn ‘Abd al-Shakūr al-Biḥārī al-Hindī was a Qaḍī [judge] among the dignitaries."

He denied the authenticity of consensus (ijmā’) of Al-Shaykhayn or the four caliphs, and said:

"It is said: Follow those who come after me, namely, Abū Bakr and ‘Umar, and follow my sunna… [the ḥadīth related from the Prophet (S.A.W.)]. We say: This is addressed to the imitators (muqallidūn) and a statement of the eligibility of itbā’ (following); for, the mujtahids opposed them and the imitators sometimes imitated other than them. As for its contradiction with "May companions are like stars" and "Take half of your religion from Al-Ḥumayrā (Ā‘isha), as reported in Al-Mukhtaṣar, this contradiction is resolved in that these two traditions [the ḥadīth of nujūm and the ḥadīth of "half of your religion"] are very weak."[49]

Qāḍī Shawkānī (d. 1250/1834): His biography is given in Al-Badr al-Ṭāli‘, Abjad al-‘Ulūm, Al-A‘lām, etc. Zirkilī has said about him: "Muḥammad b. … al-Shawkānī was a master jurist from among the great Yemeni scholars."

He commented about consensus (ijmā‘):

And in this manner, the ḥadīth "My companions are like stars, whomever among them you follow, you will be guided" implies the authenticity of the words of each one of them; [however] there is a widely known objection to this ḥadīth: "Since, the sanad (chain of transmission) includes ‘Abd al-Raḥīm al-‘Ammī quoting his father, who are both very weak [in transmission of ḥadīth]. Similarly, Ibn Mu‘īn has said: "‘Abd al-Raḥīm is a liar." Bukhārī has described him as matrūk (abandoned). And Abī Ḥātam has asserted likewise.

This ḥadīth has been related in another way, too, in which Ḥamza al-Naṣībī is named as one of the transmitters. He [Shawkānī] said about him: "He is very weak". Bukhārī says: "His [transmission of] ḥadīth is denied" and Ibn Mu‘īn has said, "He is not worth a penny." Ibn ‘Adīyy has said about him: "All his narrations are fabricated." Also it is related on the authority of Jamīl b. Zayd about him: "He is unknown".[50]

Similarly, Niẓām al-Dīn Sahālawī said on the discourse of ijmā‘ and in argumentation about the ḥadīth of iqtidā’ as well as the ḥadīth of ‘alykum bi sunnatī (follow my example): It is also replied that these two are in contradiction to the following sayings of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.): "My companions are like stars, whomever among them you follow, you will be guided" and "Take half of your religion from Al-Ḥumayrā (Ā‘isha)." It is said in response [to this reply] that the first ḥadīth is not known, even though it is related through valid sources.[51]

Ṣiddīq Ḥasan Khān (d. 1307/1889): His biography is given in Al-A‘lām, Abjad al-‘Ulūm, Al-A‘lām, Īḍāḥ al-Maknūn, etc. Zirkilī has said about him: "Muḥammad Ṣiddīq Khān b. Ḥasan… is from among the dignitaries of Al-Nahḍa al-Islāmiyya al-Mujaddadīn." About ‘idāla al-Ṣaḥāba (the justice of the companions), he has found it sufficient to mention this ḥadīth and say:

His saying "My companions are like stars", with all the discourses in it as known [to all].[52]

***

It is worth mentioning that the scholars and experts who have commented as such about the ḥadīth of nujīm, are not restricted to those mentioned above. Many other thinkers have clearly asserted the weakness of this ḥadīth, the details of which are omitted here for the sake of brevity. Included among such thinkers are: Ibn Mulaqqin, Ibn Taymiya, Jalāl al-Maḥallā, Abū Naṣr Sajazī, Abūdhar al-Ḥalabī, Aḥmad b. Qāsim al-‘Ibādī, Al-Subkī, the author of Minhāj al-Uṣūl, ‘Abd al-‘Alī Baḥr al-‘Ulūm, the author of Sharḥ-i Muslim al-Thubūt, and (from among the modern scholars): Muḥammad Nāṣir al-Dīn Albānī, and Sayyid Muḥammad ‘Aqīl al-‘Alawī.

All in all, it may be concluded from the viewpoints of these dignitaries that the prevailing view of both ancient and modern Sunnī scholars concerning the ḥadīth of nujūm is that they allow the possibility of erring by the Ṣaḥāba and do not regard all of them as men of justice and do not believe in their immunity from mistakes and sins.

And the reason for stating the biographies of the renowned Sunnī dignitaries from their own books of biography[53] was for the readers to know that the invalidity and illusiveness of the ḥadīth of nujum has been uttered by the Sunnī scholars and dignitaries.

Furthermore, as we pointed out before, the ḥadīth of nujūm has various sanads, none of which has been left immune from the sneers of the Sunnī eminent scholars and experts of al-jarḥ wa al-ta‘dīl (the science of narrator-authentication). Now, let us have a cursory review of how this ḥadīth has been transmitted by the narrators and transmitters:

The Narrators and Transmitters of the Ḥadīth of Nujūm

‘Abd al-Raḥīm b. Zayd:

The ḥadīth of nujūm has been related from ‘Abd Allāh b. ‘Umar and there exists in its sanad the name ‘Abd al-Raḥīm b. Zayd, and if any one refers to Bukhārī's Al-Ḍu‘afā’, Nisā’ī's Al-Ḍu‘afā’, Ibn Abī Ḥātam's Al-‘Ilal, Ibn Jawzī's Al-Mawḍū‘āt and Al-‘Ilal al-Mutināhiya, Dhahabī's Mīzān al-I‘tidāl, Al-Kāshif, and Al-Muqnī, Khazrajī's Khulāṣatu Tadhhīb al-Kamāl, and other reliable sources, they will notice frequent words of sneers and reprehensions about this person; such as "he is insignificant", "a liar", "weak", "the evil liar".[54]

Zayd al-‘Ammī:

The weakness of this person has also been asserted; however, we have already quoted Manāwī as relating from Ibn ‘Adīyy that: "All of the traditions narrated from him and those who narrated from him are weak."[55]

Ḥamza Jazarī:

The ḥadīth of nujūm is related from ‘Abd Allāh b. ‘Umar through another sanad in which Ḥamza Jazarī is named one of the transmitters. It is reported in Bukhārī's Al-Ḍu‘fā that Ḥamza Jazarī is "munkar al-ḥadīth (i.e., his narrations are rejected)"[56] and in Nisā’ī's Al-Ḍu‘afā’ that "huwa matrūk a-ḥadīth (his narrations are abandoned."[57] Yaḥyā’ī has said in his Al-Mawḍū‘āt: "he is insignificant" and Ibn ‘Adīyy has said: "he fabricates ḥadīth"; and in the same book Aḥmad Ḥanbal is reported as saying: "huwa maṭrūḥ a-ḥadīth (his traditions are discarded)." It is also reported from Yaḥyā that "he is not worth a penny"; and similar comments are reported from Abū Ḥayyān in Al-Baḥr al-Muḥīṭ and from Dhahabī in Al-Mizān and Al-Kāshif.[58]

Nu‘aym b. Ḥammād and Abū Sufyān and Salām b. Sulaym:

The ḥadīth of nujum is also related from ‘Umar b. al-Khaṭṭāb and such people as Zayd al-‘Ammī, ‘Abd al-Raḥīm b. Zayd, and Nu‘aym b. Ḥammād are named in its sanad, in which, as said under Ibn Jawzī and Manāwī, Nu‘aym is discredited.[59] Similarly, it is related from Jābir b. ‘Abd Allāh Anṣārī in a way in which its narrators are unknown.

Also it is related from Jābir in a second sanad, but such people are mentioned in it as Abū Sufyān about whom Ibn Ḥazm has said: "Abū Sufyān is weak"[60]; Salām b. Sulaym is also mentioned about whom Ibn Ḥajar has said: "and Salām is weak; and Ibn Ḥazm has commented: "he relates the fabricated aḥādīth and this ḥadīth [i.e., the ḥadīth of nujūm] is undoubtedly among such aḥādīth. Ibn Kharāsh said: "he is a liar." Ibn Ḥabbān has commented about him: "he has related fabricated aḥādīth". He has reported this in Silsila al-Aḥādīth al-Mawḍū‘a wa al-Ḍa‘īfa and added: "there is consensus on his weakness."[61]

Ḥārith b, Ghuṣayn:

Ibn ‘Abd al-Birr, said after reporting the ḥadīth of nujūm from Jābir with the related chain of transmission (isnād): "This is the isnād which does not infer authenticity because Ḥārith b, Ghuṣayn is not known".[62]

Sulaymān b. Abī Karīma:

The ḥadīth of nujūm is also narrated from Ibn ‘Abbās; in its sanad is mentioned a person such as Sulaymān b. Abī Karīma, whom Abū Ḥātam Rāzī, Jalāl b. Suyūṭī, and Muḥammad b. Ṭāhir have considered him as weak. Ibn ‘Adīyy said: "All his traditions are rejected"; and Dhahabī has said: "He is flexible and possessor of rejected traditions." On this issue we can refer to Ibn Jawzī's Al-Mawḍū‘āt, Dhahabī's Mīzān al-I‘tidāl and Al-Mughnī, Ibn Ḥajar's Lisān al-Mīzān, Muḥammad b. Ṭāhir.

Juybar b. Sa‘īd

Nisā‘ī has said about him in his Al-Ḍu‘afā: "His narrations are rejected." Bukhārī has related in Al-Ḍu‘afā: "Juybar b. Sa‘īd al-Balkhī has related ḥadīth from al-Ḍaḥḥāk; ‘Alī b. Yaḥyā said: I knew Juybar by two traditions; then, he narrated these traditions and regarded them as weak." Ibn Jawzī has said in Al-Mawḍū‘āt: "The scholars are consensus in rejecting him." Aḥmad Ḥanbal has said: "Do not make yourself engaged with him." And Nisā’ī, Dārquṭnī, and others have said: "His narrations are abandoned." It is also said in Al-Kāshif: "He is abandoned."[63]

Ḍaḥḥāk b. Muzāḥim:

It is reported about this person in Dhahabī's Al-Miīzān and Al-Mughnī, Ibn Ḥajar ‘Asqalānī's Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb, and other sources that: "From this person ḥadīth used to be narrated; he was weak in ḥadīth and has been disparaged."[64] Shu‘ba and a group of other dignitaries have denied that this person had seen Ibn ‘Abbās.

Ja‘far b. ‘Abd al-Wāḥid:

Where the ḥadīth of nujum is related from Abū Harīra, there is in its sanad a person like Ja‘far b. ‘Abd al-Wāḥid al-Qāḍī al-Hāshimī, and as we refer to such books as Ibn Ḥajar ‘Asqlānī's Takhrīj Aḥādīth al-Kashshāf and Lisān al-Mīzān[65], Dhahabī's Al-Mughnī and Al-Mīzān, and Jalāl al-Dīn Suyūṭī's Al-La’ālī al-Maṣnū‘a fī al-Aḥādīth al-Mawṣū‘a, we find that hey have commented about him: "This man is accused of fabrication and plagiary of ḥadīth; he is a rejected liar…"[66] Yet, what is said here is irrespective of the well-known story about Abū Harīra himself recorded in history.

Bushr b. al-Ḥusayn:

The ḥadīth of nujūm is related from Anas b. Mālik, too; and there is such a name as Bushr b. al-Ḥusayn in its chain of transmission. He has related ḥadīth from Zubayr b. ‘Adīyy from Anas; and Dhahabī has said in Al-Mughnī: "Dārquṭnī has said that he is abandoned" and Abū Ḥātam has said: "He would fabricate lies against al-Zubayr." Other comments expressed in his condemnation can be seen in Ibn Ḥajar's Lisān al-Mīzān.

In-depth Analysis of the Ḥadīth of Nujūm

An in-depth consideration would indicate that the text of this ḥadīth [of nujūm] has been interpolated and distorted by mysterious agents; whereas, the original quote has been: "Stars are security for the inhabitants of the heavens…and my Ahl al-Bayt are security for my umma; so, whenever my Ahl al-Bayt depart [from the world], what has been promised to my umma will befall them," and the term "my companions" has been replaced by "my Ahl al-Bayt".

The above ḥadīth is presented in full details from mustadrak as follows for the respected readers to get further familiarized with its various aspects of distortion:

Abū al-Qāsim ‘Abd al-Raḥmān b. Ḥasan al-Qāḍī in Hamadān relates from his own book from Muḥammad b. al-Mughayra al-Shukrī from Al-Qāsim b. al-Ḥakīm [Al-Ḥakam] al-‘Uranī from ‘Abd Allāh b. ‘Amr b. Murrah from Muḥammad b. Sawqa from Muḥammad b. Munkadir from his father from the Prophet (S.A.W.) that his Holiness left [his house] for the night prayer later [than usual], so that some moments or an hour had passed the evening and the people were waiting in the mosque. The Prophet (S.A.W.) asked: "What are you waiting for?" They said: "We are waiting for the prayer." Then he said: "As long as you are waiting for prayer, you are in prayer." He went on to say: "Let it be known that this is a prayer that no other umma has ever before you performed." Then he raised his head toward the sky and said: "Stars are security for the inhabitants of the heavens, and if they vanish, the heavens will bring about what has been promised to; and I am security for my companions, so, if I pass away, whatever is promised to my companions will befall them; and my Ahl al-Bayt are security for my umma, and if my Ahl al-Bayt depart [from the world], whatever is promised to my umma will befall them."[67]

Some Reasons for the Invalidity of the Ḥadīth of Nujūm

Having mentioned the full ḥadīth, now we would bring to your view the reasons for the invalidity of this ḥadīth in terms of text and denotation:

The first reason for the invalidity of the ḥadīth of nujum is its contradiction to consensus (ijmā‘) and necessity; as, it is said that this ḥadīth denotes the competency of all the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)'s companions, which is unanimously invalidated. It also denotes that all the companions of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) are the guides to the umma, which is also invalid, since many of the companions led the people astray. It is also stated that the ḥadīth denotes that all the companions deserve to be emulated; and this is invalid, too, because many of the companions, or rather, most of them do not deserve such a status for some reasons that we will give later.

The second reason for the unsoundness of the ḥadīth of nujūm is that some of the companions have committed such great sins as adultery, homicide, sale and drinking of wine, perjury, and the like. These facts would be clearly evident to those who take a close look into their state of affairs. Therefore, is it really reasonable that the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) introduce any one of them as a leader and guide to the umma?!

The third reason is that many of the verses of the Qur'an, including Sūrat al-Anfāl, Sūrat al-Tawba, Sūrat al-Aḥzāb, Sūrat al-Jum‘a, and Sūrat al-Munāfiqūn are in condemnation of a group of the companions; is it acceptable that the noble Prophet would have appointed such companions to the leadership of his umma?!

The fourth reason for the invalidity of the ḥadīth of nujūm is its contradiction with other traditions; as, there have been many traditions related from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) reproaching the companions, which can be found in reliable Sunnī Ṣaḥīḥs and Musnads (anthologies of traditions), including:

The ḥadīth of ḥawḍ (fountain)…

The ḥadīth of irtidād (heresy)…

The ḥadīth: lā tarja‘ū ba‘dī kuffāran (do not turn apostate after me)...

The ḥadīth: al-shirk akhfā fīkum min dabīb al-naml (disbelief among you is more invisible than the movement of an ant)…

The ḥadīth: lā adrā mā tuḥdithūna ba‘dī (I do not know what you will do after me)…

The ḥadīth: ittibā‘ sunan al-Yahūd wa al-Nasārā (following the traditions of the Jews and Nazarenes)…

The ḥadīth: al-tanāfus (rivalry)…

The ḥadīth: inna min aṣḥābī man lā yarānī ba‘dī wa lā arāhu (among my companions are the ones who will not see me after me and I will not see them)…

The ḥadīth: inna fī aṣḥābī munāfiqīn (there are hypocrites among my companions)…

The ḥadīth: qad kathurat ‘alayya al-kidhāba (ascribing lies to me has abounded)…

And there are innumerable other narrations and traditions related in condemnation of the companions, which are in contradiction to the ḥadīth of nujum – in case of course it is sound. Thus, acting on this ḥadīth is not advisable.

The fifth reason is that there are traditions in the Shī‘a books which explicitly signify that the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) has prohibited emulating the companions. In one instance, he said: "Whoever emulates them is in fire."

‘Āṣimī has related: "He [the Prophet], peace be upon him, said: "Whenever my companions are mentioned, keep silent," meaning to avoid vilifying them and stating their blunders! He also said: My grandfather, Muḥājir, quoted Abū ‘Alī Hiravī relating from Ma’mūn from ‘Aṭīya from Ibn Mubārak from Ibn Luhay‘a from Yazīd b. Abī Ḥabīb as saying: The Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) said: "My companions will come up with some events after me; that is, the disturbance that will be created among them. So, may Allah forgive their past; if after them any people emulate them, Allah will throw them in Hellfire."

Ibn Luhay‘a said: "This has been my opinion since I heard this ḥadīth."[68]

Muttaqī Hindī related that the Prophet (S.A.W.) said: "My companions will come up with some disturbance among them, that may Allah forgive their past; if after them any people emulate them, Allah will throw them in Hellfire."[69]

The sixth reason for the invalidity of the ḥadīth of nujūm is the companions' confession to their incompetence for the leadership of people; there are many traditions related from the Sunnīs as to the confession of the companions to their own incompetence for leadership.

Most of the historians have observed that a group of the companions would appeal to others to obtain legal rulings in the upcoming events and issues; and there were people among the companions who admitted that "all people are more learned than me, even the veiled women." Yet, some of them issued contradictory rulings on a single case out of ignorance. Ṭabarī, in his Tafsīr, has presented astonishing instances about the second caliph.

Thus, it is unthinkable that the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.), who possessed the knowledge of the first and the last, would have introduced such people as authorities and leaders of the umma despite their ignorance of the rulings and religious knowledge.

The seventh reason is that we know that according to the āyah of taṭhīr [Qur'an, 33: 33] and the ḥadīth of thaqalayn, as well as other verses and traditions, there is no doubt about the immunity (iṣmat) of the Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.) from sin and error. Thus, with these noble figures, it is not reasonable that the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) would have proclaimed the wrongdoers to be like stars in the sky…even though some of the companions like Abū Dhar, Salmān, Miqdād, and ‘Ammār, and … were second in rank to the Imams.

The eighth reason is that there has undoubtedly been disagreement among the companions on legal rulings – whether disputable or indisputable, which is, in itself subject of various books, such as Al-Inṣāf fī Bayān Sabab al-Ikhtilāf by Shāh Walī Allāh Dihlavī. Therefore, no wise faithful person – let alone the last of the Prophets (S.A.W.) – would consent to admit such people as leaders of umma and to liken them to stars.

The ninth reason for renouncing the ḥadīth of nujum, which introduced the companions as stars, is that the companions of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) were subject to denigration. Yet, in some instances, denigration of some by others had exceeded its moderate limits and led to accusation and excommunication. These are the propositions provided in the books of the Sunnīs. So, how would a wise person believe all of these [companions] – with such descriptions – to be pioneers of religion and leaders of Muslims?!

The tenth reason is that some of the companions did not abide by the Book of Allah and the sunna of the Prophet (S.A.W.) and came up with heresy in religious matters. Are such people like the stars in the sky so that people may follow in their steps?! For instance, it is related in the chapter on riḍā‘a al-kabīr of Ṣaḥīḥ of Bukhārī, that some of the companions have issued a fatwā that "it is permissible for men to suckle milk from women's breasts and thereby become maḥram [a person with whom marriage is prohibited] to them and look at their bodies unveiled." To this end, the very companions who had issued this fatwā would send men to their [the formers'] sisters and nieces to be ranked as pioneer in this wondrous enterprise. Do such people deserve to be leaders of the umma?!

Another instance is that some of the companions permitted drinking muthallath wine; that is, the pure wine was boiled down to one third (thulthān) of its bulk and drunk, stating that it was held lawful (ḥalāl) this way. It is reported in Al-Mabsūṭ[70] that one of the dignitaries from among the companions did this [drank the wine] and was protested; and when he was told that fire does not cleanse anything, he responded: "O Fool! Isn't the vinegar first wine and then turns vinegar and then we drink it?!"

The eleventh reason is that many of the religious rulings and the traditions of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) had not reached them and they were uninformed of them, and it often happened that they would behave contrary to the rulings issued by the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) and many a time acted as opposed to the Qur'an and its text.

The twelfth reason is that the indifference of some the companions to the religious rulings and their failure to ask questions from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) is well-kown in history. Ibn ‘Abbās has related:

I have seen no people better than the companions of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.). They asked him only about thirteen problems before he died, all of which have been referred to in the Qur'an; including "They ask you concerning warfare in the holy month," and "They ask you concerning [intercourse during] menses,"… and "They would not ask about anything except the things that were to their benefit."[71]

This saying of Ibn ‘Abbās indicates that many of the companions were heedless of the legal rulings and had no interest in them; and although the presence of the Prophet (S.A.W.) among them was a Divine Blessing, they did not take any advantage of that opportunity and failed to ask him questions to learn about religious problems. According to Ibn ‘Abbās, the companions asked only thirteen questions from the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) during all his blessed lifetime; and yet, all those questions were mentioned in the Qur'an. So, how did these people deserve to lead the umma?![72]

The thirteenth reason is that many issues have been arbitrarily and out of ignorance decided upon and articulated by the companions either through fatwā (ijtihad [legal reasoning] vs. naṣṣ [Revealed Text]) or otherwise. Some of these will be touched upon here to conclude this discussion:

1. Some of the companions gave fatwā, against the Prophet's view, that it is unlawful for the women to wear shoes while having their pilgrimage garb (iḥrām) on!

2. Some gave fatwā that kissing would make the wuḍū invalid!

3. Some gave fatwā that the dead would be tormented when the living cry for them!

4. Some gave fatwā that all the months are 29 days!

5. Some gave fatwā for the unlawfulness of temporary marriage (mut‘a)!

6. Yet, they refused to administer legal punishment (ḥadd) for adultery to one of the companions who had married this way.

7. In the battle of Jamal, a group of the companions forced fifty people to bear witness that the region in question was not Mā’ Ḥaw’ab, which was the first perjury committed in Islam by these companions, as is well-known in history.

8. Some of the companions cut off the quota for "Reconciliation of the Hearts" from the public treasury allocated and regarded as greatly significant by the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.).

9. Some of the dignitaries among the companions refrained from the Prophet's emphatic order to join the army of Usāma b. Zayd, under the pretext that the Prophet had assigned a young person over them!

10. Some gave fatwā that in case there is no water for wuḍū, one can skip prayers!

11. Some of the dignitaries among the companions had heard the Prophet say: "Whoever persecutes [my daughter] Fāṭima is persecuting me and whoever persecutes me is persecuting Allah"; nevertheless, they did infuriate ḥaḍrat Zahrā and set the door of her house on door.

12. Fujā’a Sullamī was thrown into fire with his hands tied up by the orders of some of the great companions, whereas the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) had emphatically forbidden it.

13. In a Ḥajj pilgrimage that the Prophet (S.A.W.) performed together with the Muslims, some of the dignitaries among the companions openly disobeyed the Prophet's order to have their hair shorn off after slaughtering the sacrificial animal.

14. There were certain people among the companions who believed in the permissibility of wine sale and perpetrated this great sin; and although they did it according to their own legal reasoning (ijtahād), they agitated ‘Umar b. al-Khaṭṭāb so much that he said: "May God kill such and such a person who sold wine!" And ‘Ā’isha contented herself with counting these kinds of transactions as invalidating their Ḥajj and their battles alongside the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)!!

15. Some of the companions renounced their faith and apostatized, as is well-known in history.

16. Some of the dignitaries among the companions failed to answer questions asked by Kalāla due to their unfamiliarity with the Qur'an or even the meaning of Arabic words and said: "We have a particular view on this issue; if it is true, it is from the Almighty God, and if it is wrong, it is from us and the Satan." Most of the time when they were at their wit's end to answer people's questions and misconceptions, they would ask ‘Alī b. Abī Ṭālib to answer and frequently said: "We would have been ruined if ‘Alī was not there."[73]

To sum it up: The noble verses of the Qur'an, the Prophetic traditions, and the books of jurisprudence and history are all witnesses to the invalidity of the ḥadīth of nujūm and denote that simply because the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.) had a ṣaḥābī in his company does not allow us to follow and emulate that ṣaḥābī; for, as you noticed, there have been hypocrites, impious, and criminals among the companions.

Therefore, the meaning of the ḥadīth of nujūm is, in itself, another reason that this ḥadīth is fabricated and concocted by the counterfeiters, not mentioning the weakness of all the transmitters and the ways of transmission of this ḥadīth which was described in details to the respected readers.

To prove the illusiveness and invalidity of the ḥadīth of nujūm, it was attempted in this article to refer to just the most reliable resources of ḥadīth, and historical and biographical sources of the leading Sunnī scholars and their views and opinions concerning this ḥadīth. Thus, a careful contemplation on its content will clearly show that this ḥadīth is invalid with all its wordings and sanads and referring and holding on to it is by no means appropriate.



[1] Qāmūs al-Muḥīt, under the entry ṣa-ḥa-ba.

[2] Al-Mufradāt min Gharīb al-Qur'ān, under the entry ṣa-ḥa-ba.

[3] Miṣbāḥ al-Munīr, under the entry ṣa-ḥa-ba.

[4] Al-Mukhtaṣar, vol. 2, p. 17.

[5] Miqbās al-Hidāya.

[6] This view has been chosen by Shahīd Thānī and Ibn Ḥajar ‘Asqalānī.

[7] Al-Maqāṣid al-Ḥasana fī Bayān Kathīr min al-Aḥādīth al-Mushtahara ‘alā al-Alsana.

[8] Musnad Shahāb.

[9] Sayyid ‘Abd al-Ḥusayn Sharaf al-Dīn has related this issue in his Ajwibata Masā’ila Jār Allāh, p. 12.

[10] The full text of his view will be given in this article.

[11] Ibn Ḥajar has quoted this from him in Al-Iṣāba, vol. 1, pp. 17-18.

[12] Al-Iṣāba, vol. 1, p. 19.

[13] Al-Istī‘āb, vol. 1, p.8.

[14] Usd al-Ghāba, vo. 1, p. 3.

[15] Iḥyā’ al-‘Ulūm al-Dīn.

[16] Al-Mukhtaṣar, vol. 2, p. 67.

[17] Sharḥ al-Maqāṣid, vol. 1, p.310.

[18] Al-Iṣāba, vol. 1, p. 19; Al-Naṣāyih al-Kāfiya, p. 161.

[19] Al-Naṣāyih al-Kāfiya, p. 162.

[20] Irshād al-Fuḥūl, ilā Taḥqīq al-Ḥaqq min ‘Ilm al-Uṣūl.

[21] Shaykh al-Muḍyara Abū Hurayra, Maḥmūd Abū Riyya, p. 101.

[22] Quoted from Aḍwā’ ‘alā al-Sunnat al-Muḥammadiyya Maḥmūd Abū Riyya.

[23] Al-Naṣāyiḥ al-Kāfiya.

[24] Quoted from Shaykh al-Muḍyara.

[25] Ibid.

[26] I‘jāz al-Qur’ān.

[27] Al-Taysīr, vol. 3, p. 243.

[28] Ibn ‘Abd al-Birr, Jāmi‘ Bayān al-‘Ilm, vol. 2, pp. 89-90.

[29] Jāmi‘ Bayān al-‘Ilm, vol. 2, p. 190; A‘lām al-Muwaqqi‘īn, vol. 2. p. 223; Al-Baḥr al-Muḥīt, vol. 5, p. 528.

[30] Al-Kāfī al-Shāfī fī takhrīj Aḥādīth al-Kashāf, vol. 2, p. 628.

[31] Al-Baḥr al-Muḥīt, vol. 5, p. 528.

[32] Jamāl al-Dīn Yūsif b. Taghrī Birdī, the Egyptian jurist, traditionist, and biographer, was a disciple of Ibn Ḥajar ‘Asqalānī and Taqī al-Dīn Miqrīzī, who died in 874/1469. Among his works are Al-Minhal al-Ṣāfī on the biographies of the eminent figures and Al-Nujūm al-Zāhira on the historical events of Egypt and Cairo.

[33] [Al-Kāfī al-Shāfī fī] Takhrīj Aḥādīth al-Kashshāf, vol. 2, p. 628.

[34] Jāmi' Bayān al-‘Ilm, vol. 2, p. 90-91.

[35] Fayḍ al-Qadīr fī Sharḥ al-Jāmi‘ al-Ṣaghīr, vol. 4, p. 76; as well as Al-‘Ilal al-Mutināhiy fī al-Aḥādīth al-Wāhiya.

[36] Ta‘līq Takhrīj Aḥādīth Al-Minhāj Bayḍāwī. This piece is also related in ‘Aqabāt.

[37] Mizān al-I‘tidāl, vol. 1, p. 413.

[38] Ibid, vol. 2. p. 102.

[39] Al-Durar al-Laqīṭ min Baḥr al-Muḥīṭ, a marginal note on Al-Baḥr al-Muḥīṭ: Al-Baḥr al-Muḥīṭ, vol. 5, p. 527.

[40] A‘lām al-Muwaqqi‘īn, vol. 3, p.223.

[41] [Al-Kāfī al-Shāfī fī] Takhrīj Aḥādīth al-Kashāf, vol. 2, p.628.

[42] Al-Taḥrīr bi Sharḥ Ibn Amīr al-Ḥāj (Al-Taqrīr wa al-Taḥbīr), vol. 3, p. 99.

[43] Al-Maqāṣid al-Ḥasana fī Bayān Kathīr min al-Aḥādīth al-Mushtahara ‘Alā al-Alsina, pp. 26-27.

[44] Al-Jāmi‘ al-Ṣaghīr bi Sharḥ al-Mināvī, vol. 4, p. 76.

[45] Al-Taysīr fī Sharḥ al-Jāmi‘ al-Ṣaghīr, vol. 2, p. 48.

[46] Fayḍ al-Qadīr fī Sharḥ al-Jāmi‘ al-Ṣaghīr. Vol. 4, p. 76.

[47] Dirāsāt al-Labīb fī al-Uswa al-Ḥasana al-Ḥabīb, p. 240.

[48] Nasīm al-Riyāḍ fī Sharḥ Shifā’ al-Qāḍī ‘Ayāḍ, vol. 4, pp. 423-424.

[49] Muslim al-Thubūt bi Sharḥ al-Anṣārī, vol. 2, p. 241.

[50] Irshād al-Fuḥūl ilā Taḥqīq al-Ḥaqq min ‘Ilm al-Uṣūl, p. 83; Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb, vol. 1, p. 329.

[51] Al-Ṣubḥ al-Ṣādiq bi Sharḥ al-Manār.

[52] Ḥusn al-Ma’mūl min ‘Ilm al-Uṣūl, p. 56.

[53] To this end, we have used as reference the texts and additional notes of: Sayyid ‘Alī al-Ḥusaynī al-Mīlānī, Khulāṣatu ‘Aqabāt al-Anwār, Bunyād Bi‘that Publication, 1405 AH; Al-Sayyid Hāshim al-Amīn (Arabic translation), ‘Abaqāt al-Anwār, Mu‘assisa al-Nashr al-Islāmiyya, Qum.

[54] For what was said here and for more, see Ibn Ḥajar ‘Asqalānī, Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb, ed. ‘Abd al-Qādir ‘Aṭā, vol. 4, p. 441, Beirut, 1415 AH.

[55] Also see: Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb, vol. 2, p.238.

[56] Al-Imām al-Bukhārī, Al-Ḍu‘afā, p. 36.

[57] Nisā’ī, Al-Ḍu‘afā’, p.32.

[58] Also see the view of Ibn Ḥajar and Mizzī about him in Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb, vol. 3, p. 35.

[59] Also in Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb, vol. 10, p. 408.

[60] Silsila al-Aḥādīth, vol. 1, p. 78, (he is meant to be Abū Sufyān b. ‘Atīk Anṣārī who related ḥadīth from his father).

[61] Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb, vol. 2, p. 462.

[62] Jāmi‘ Bayān al-‘Ilm, vol. 2, p. 90.

[63] Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb, vol. 2, p. 572.

[64] Ibid, vol. 2, p. 572.

[65] Mizān al-I‘tidā, vol. 1, p. 383.

[66] Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb, vol. 1, p. 383.

[67] Mustadrak al-Wasā’il, vol. 3, p. 457.

[68] Zayn al-Fatā fī Tafsīr Sura Hal Atā.

[69] Kanz al-‘Ummāl, vol. 22, p. 174.

[70] Al-Mabsūṭ, vol. 24, p. 7.

[71] Al-Inṣāf fī Bayān Sabab al-Ikhtilāf.

[72] To search for more of such reasons and evidences in the books by Sunnī historians and biographers, see: Aḥmad Ḥusayn Ya‘qūb al-Urdunī, Naẓariyyatu ‘Idāla al-Ṣaḥāba, Mu‘asisa al-Fajr, London.

[73] For more information about the ignorantly issued and contrary to the Revealed Text fatwās, see Sayyid ‘Abd al-Ḥusayn Sharaf al-Dīn, Al-Naṣṣ wa al-Ijtahād.


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