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A Comparative Examination of the Sunni and Shia Hadith

Author : Allamah Sayyid Murtada Askari
Subject : Prophet’s Sunnah
Translator : Ahmad Rezwani
Editor : Mahdi Baqi

25 May 2010
Hadith Sciences 1


Allamah Sayyid Murtada Askari

Status of Sunna from Shi’i Viewpoint

This paper – presented in International Symposium on Status of Prophetic Sunnah in Islam, Istanbul, Turkey, 1995 – deals with importance attached by Shi`i people and cites some examples from Shi`i hadith sources concerning Shi`i scholars’ referring to the Prophetic Sunnah after the Holy Quran. These hadiths indicates that what have been said by Shi`i Imams are the same as the sayings of the Holy Prophet which have reached them. The author deals with the Book of Ali and explains the characteristics of this book and emphasize that this book has been told by the Prophet and written by Imam Ali, peace be upon them. Citing some hadiths from Infallible Imams he tries to prove that what have been said by Imams are the same as the sayings of the holy Prophet which has been written in the Book of Ali which is known as al-Jami`a by them. The author finally comes up with the hadith sources and concludes that these hadith collections have been compiled using Asls which had been narrated by traditionists from Infallible Imams they have not reported but the word of the Messenger of Allah. At the end he concludes that these hadiths are the words of the Messenger of Allah and Shi`a just acts according to the Book of Allah and the Prophetic Sunnah.

Key Words

Book of Ali, Sunnah, Shi`a Views, Hadith Sources


In the Name Of Allah, the All-beneficent, the All-merciful

﴾Indeed, with Allah religion is Islam.﴿ (Al-Qur'an, 3: 19)

﴾Allah certainly favored the faithful when He raised up among them an apostle from among themselves to recite to them His signs and to purify them, and to teach them the Book and wisdom, and earlier they had indeed been in manifest error.﴿ (Al-Qur'an, 3: 164)

﴾We have sent down the reminder to you so that you may clarify for the people that which has been sent down to them.﴿ (Al-Qur'an, 16: 44)

In the beginning, it is necessary to make some remarks and then discuss about the significance of ḥadīth and the science of ḥadīth in the sharī‘a (religious law) of the Seal of the Prophets and the history of ḥadīth in the two schools (of the Ahl al-Bayt and of the Caliphs).

The Bond between Revelation and Ḥadīth

Islam is a system that the Creator of the world has legislated in proportion to human fiṭra (inner nature) and in order to restore him to perfect humanness, and has revealed this sharī‘a as commensurate with the needs of human communities from the Prophet Adam (A.S.) to the Seal of the Prophets (S.A.W.): to the Prophet Adam (A.S.), the Ṣuḥuf of Adam commensurate with the needs of several households, the Ṣuḥuf of Idrīs (Enoch) to the Prophet Idrīs (A.S.) commensurate with the requirements of a little village, and so forth…to the time of the Prophet Noah when the people settled in cities, commensurate with the needs of townsmen and city-dwellers (for instance, having usurious transactions).

The Holy Qur'an says about the sharī‘a: ﴾He has prescribed for you the religion which He had enjoined upon Noah.﴿[1] Of course, there are no differences among the religious laws, as it states in another chapter: ﴾Indeed Abraham was among his followers.﴿[2] and tells us: ﴾So, follow the creed of Abraham, a ḥanīf.﴿[3] ; and says to the Prophet (S.A.W.): ﴾…and follows the creed of Abraham, a ḥanīf.﴿[4]

Revealed Religions did not have any contradiction with each other; rather, they have been perfected and improved on. In the Seal of the Prophets' sharī‘a, after the Prophet (S.A.W.) appointed ‘Alī (A.S.) as his successor by Divine command on the day of Ghadīr, the āyah (Qur'anic verse) was revealed: ﴾Today I have perfected your religion for you, and I have completed My blessing upon you, and I have approved Islam as your religion.﴿[5] The perfection of religious law from the Prophet Adam (A.S.) up to the Seal of the Prophets (S.A.W.), is comparable to the mathematical sciences through primary school, high school, and university. Albeit, in previous religions, all religious laws have been contained in the revealed books of those religions, whether the Ṣuḥuf of Adam, the Ṣuḥuf of Idrīs, or the Torah of Moses (A.S.).

All the law-giving Prophets had a spiritual heir (waṣī) in their sharī‘a; and in my ‘Aqā’id al-Islām min al-Qur'ān al-Karīm I have mentioned all their spiritual heirs from the Prophet Adam (A.S.) up to the Seal of the Prophets (S.A.W.), and asserted that no Prophet was ever without a waṣī and that as long as the waṣī of any of the Prophets was alive their sharī‘a would remain sound and viable, too. Adam's spiritual heir was Shīth (Seth), famous as Hibat Allāh. Noah's waṣī was Sam; Moses' waṣī was Elisha; and the Jesus' waṣī was Simon. As such, all the Prophets had their own waṣīs.

The waṣīs did not have any religions of their own. As long as the waṣīs of the law-giving Prophets lived, the latter's laws and revealed religions were also preserved. When the waṣī of that Prophet died, the revealed book would suffer alterations and concealment by the bullies of the then community. Those who regarded themselves as the followers of Moses son of ‘Imrān (A.S.) distorted the Torah and concealed or altered that part of Torah which contradicted their sensual desires; so also was it with the sharī‘a of Jesus son of Mary (A.S.). There are some copies of the Old and the New Testaments available in the library of the Faculty of Theology, Tehran University, which have given the glad tidings of the coming of the Prophet of Islam (S.A.W.).

The power-oriented and bullies of any religion entered innovations and hyperbolic opinions into that religion; according to the Qur'an: ﴾But as for monasticism, they innovated it﴿[6], and ﴾Do not exceed the bounds in your religion.﴿[7] It has not been mentioned in the sharī‘a of Jesus (A.S.) that – God forbid – he is the son of God. When something like this had been done with a sharī‘a, that sharī‘a would have demanded renewal. The shsarī‘a ‘ that Moses son of ‘Imrān (A.S.) had presented through the Torah no longer existed in the time of Jesus son of Mary (A.S.) and the Lordship of the Lord of the two worlds demanded that the sharī‘a be renewed by sending another Messenger. Of course, religions not only have had no contradiction with each other, but they have been improved on, as well; however, they would have been distorted, hence the terms yuḥarrifūn (distort) and yaktumūn (conceal) [were employed in this respect] in the Qur'an.

It was the Wisdom of the Lord of the two worlds that demanded the sharī‘a of the Seal of the Prophets last forever; otherwise, people's inner nature is not wont to change. The inner nature of the bullies of this umma has not differed from that of the bullies of the past. They would have altered the revealed Book of the Seal of the Prophets, too, and distorted or concealed whatever that did not conform to their whimsical desires if they could; then, the Qur'an would have lost the value in which we have faith now (believing it is entirely revealed by God).

Therefore, in order for the sharī‘a of the Seal of the Prophets to reach the umma, two types of Revelations were descended: 1. Qur'anic Revelation, 2. Expressive Revelation.

The Qur'anic Revelation and the Expressive Revelation

The Qur'anic Revelation is that all its words are from God, and that is the Holy Qur'an in which the principles of the Islamic law are presented. It is said in the Qur'an: ﴾Maintain the prayer from the sun's decline till the darkness of the night.﴿[8] All the Muslims perform two rak‘as of prayer in the morning, three rak‘as in the evening, and four rak‘as at noon, in the afternoon, and at night. But, where in the Qur'an is it mentioned as such? Is it the Muslims' consensus? Who did we adopt it form? From the Prophet? And where did the Prophet (S.A.W.) adopt it from?... ﴾Nor does he speak out of his own desire.﴿[9]

The Prophet is addressed in the Qur'an: ﴾We have sent down the reminder to you so that you may clarify for the people that which has been sent down to them.﴿[10] there are other verses that address the Prophet (S.A.W.) and not us: "Kāf, Hā, Yā, ‘Ayn, Ṣād" , "Alif, Lām, Mīm", "Ḥā, Mīm". The Revelation descended on the Prophet (A.S.) in order that he would state what had been unveiled to us people from this Qur'an and this Wise Reminder. His holiness' statements come to bethe traditions of the Prophet (S.A.W.) [i.e., Prophetic traditions].

The second Revelation, i.e., the Expressive Revelation, came along with the first one. For instance, on the day of Ghadīr Khum, the verse ﴾O Apostle! Communicate that which has been sent down to you from your Lord, and if you do not, you will not have communicated his message.﴿[11] was revealed along with the Expressive Revelation "O Apostle! Communicate that which has been sent down to you from your Lord about ‘Alī".[12] Thus, "about ‘Alī" is the ḥadīth of the Prophet (S.A.W.). So is it also with the rak‘as of prayer. This is the source of ḥadīth in the sharī‘a of the Seal of the Prophets. The source of the ḥadīth of the Prophet (S.A.W.) is Divine Revelation: ﴾Nor does he speak out of [his own] desire: it is just a Revelation that is revealed [to him].﴿[13] Yet, more important than that is the verse: ﴾Had he faked any sayings in Our name, we would have surely seized him by the right hand and then cut off his aorta, and none of you could have held Us off from him.﴿[14]; that is to say, "if Our Prophet say anything on his own and ascribe it to Us, We will bar him and cut off his aorta and none of you could prevent it".

In this Expressive Revelation to the Prophet (S.A.W.), the issues that were in contrast to the whimsical desires of the politicians, bullies, and caliphs such as Mu‘āwiyya and Yazīd, were revealed to the Prophet (S.A.W.). For instance, it is said in the Qur'an: ﴾and the tree cursed in the Qur'an.﴿[15] Reading the tafsīrs would indicate that most of the interpreters have given a ḥadīth revealing the "tree cursed" to be the Umayyad. If it were explicitly mentioned in the Qur'an that the "tree cursed" was the Umayyad, and if there were references in the Qur'an that was in contrast to their policy and sovereignty, they would have done to the Qur'an what the previous bullies did to the Revealed Scriptures; i.e., would have distorted and concealed it. They would have desecrated the Qur'an, and distorted and concealed its verses; thus, the Qur'an would have lost its authenticity [whereas]: ﴾Indeed We sent down the Remembrance, and indeed We will preserve it.﴿[16]

Thereby, Allah preserved this Revealed Book, which is to remain eternally authentic, by not mentioning what was explicitly in contrast to the whimsical desires of the bullies and caliphs; instead, it was conveyed to the Muslim umma through the traditions of the Prophet (S.A.W.). It is upon us to figure out what the status of ḥadīth is in this umma.

In Sūrat al-Taḥrīm, who is the addressee of ﴾and if you back each other against him﴿ in the āyah ﴾If the two of you repent to Allah…for hearts have certainly swerved, and if you back each other against him…﴿[17]? And where Allah says: ﴾then [know that] Allah is indeed his master, and Gabriel, the righteous among the faithful.﴿, who is the righteous among the faithful? Or, toward the end of this chapter, where He says: ﴾Allah draws an example for the faithless: the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot. They were under two of our righteous servants, yet they betrayed them. So they did not avail them in any way against Allah.﴿[18] What is the story about? What had ‘Ā’isha and Ḥafḍa done? In my Al-Saqīfa, which is not published yet, I have recounted the story as to what these two had done in the house of the Prophet (S.A.W.) that such a strongly-worded āyah was revealed. God willing, when Al-Saqīfa is published, you will find out what was happening in the house of the Prophet (S.A.W.); and whether the story of causing the Prophet's camel to stampede in the event of ‘Aqaba had anything to do with the above references. There were stories that if recounted in the Qur'an, they would not have been left intact. So, God Almighty preserved the Qur'an as per revealing the sharī‘a of the Seal of the Prophets in two Revelations [in my phrasing]: Qur'anic Revelation and Expressive Revelation. Both have been revealed by God. Given this, we can now comprehend some of the traditions as well (that, for example, what is meant that the name of ‘Alī – A.S. – has been in the Revelation).

The late Ḥājī Nūrī has a book named Faṣl al-khiṭāb fī Taḥrīf Kitāb Rabb al-Arbāb. So also Iḥsān Ẓahīr has authored a book named Al-Shī‘a wa al-Qur’ān. In chapter 11 of his book, Ḥājī Nūrī has presented what has been narrated in the caliphs' school which he could use to figure out that the Qur'an has been distorted; and in chapter 12, he has presented such narrations from the Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.)'s school. In Al-Shī‘a wa al-Qur’ān, Iḥsān Ẓahīr has mentioned only the narrations that Ḥājī Nūrī has related from the Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.)'s school. These two books have been the main cause of the massacre of the Shī'as by Wahhābīs in Pakistan up to this date.

I have written three volumes in response to Ḥājī Nūrī and Iḥsān Ẓahīr of which the first is Al-Shī‘a wa al-Qur’ān. The second volume, named Buḥūthun Tamhīdiyya, states the Qur'anic terms that we have lost today and if we do not understand those terms, we will not be able to understand the narration which contains those terms. In this eight-hundred-page volume, I have examined all the traditions that are presented in the caliphs' school about the Qur'an. In the third volume, I have examined in terms of text and sanad all the narrations that Ḥājī Nūrī has related from the Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.)'s school and made reference to them as evidence that the Qur'an has been distorted, and increased or decreased in the number of verses; and I have, by the grace of Allah, proved what the sanad and text of those traditions are. You would see that part of the problem is due to not comprehending the tradition and another part is because of misreading the tradition.

So, the sharī‘a of Islam has been revealed in two Revelations: Qur'anic Revelation and Expressive Revelation, and that through only the Qur'anic Revelation we will not be able to achieve the Islamic religious laws (like prayer, fasting, and Ḥajj). This demarcates the sharī‘a of the Seal of the Prophets from other sharī‘as, since in the latter all the religious laws have been incorporated in their revealed Scriptures (and their revealed Scripture had been distorted). Intended to last forever, the principles of the sharī‘a of Islam is revealed in the Divine Book and the Qur'anic Revelation and their exposition and explanation in the traditions of the Prophet (S.A.W.).

What Befell the Traditions of the Prophet (S.A.W.)

Now, let's see what has been done to the Prophet (S.A.W.)'s traditions. Have the bullies in this umma (i.e., the caliphs that did not tolerate the traditions that were opposed to their whimsical desires) done to the traditions of the Prophet (S.A.W.) what the bullies of the past ummas did to their very Revealed scriptures?

It will take much time to cite examples for all the sources. It is related in the Musnad of Aḥmad, Sunan of Dāramī, and some other sources that ‘Abd Allāh b. ‘Amr b. ‘Āṣ said that the Quraysh (i.e., the emigrants - muhājirūn) told him: "Do you write down everything you hear from the Prophet (S.A.W.), whereas he is a human being like all other human beings who speaks in anger and pleasure?"[19] That is to say, somewhere the Prophet was pleased with Abū Dhar and said about him: "There is no one under the heavens or over the earth more honest than Abū Dhar."[20] In another instance, when he was pleased with ‘Ammār, he said: "‘Ammār is with the Truth."[21] Yet, on another occasion, he was displeased with Ḥakam b. Abī al-‘Āṣ and cursed him! So, how come you should be writing down all this?! Thus, the Quraysh also prohibited others from writing down the traditions of the Prophet (S.A.W.).[22]

‘Amr b. ‘Āṣ says: I wrote down the protest of the Quraysh and later on asked the Prophet (S.A.W.) about it. He said: "Write, by Him in Whose hand my soul lies, only right comes out from my mouth."[23] So, the prohibition of ḥadīth dissemination began from the time of the Prophet (S.A.W.). On his deathbed, the Prophet (S.A.W.) said: "Bring to me a pen and paper, so that I write for you a document that you would never go astray after that."[24] It is really strange. This never happened to any other Prophet. There, ‘Umar uttered a slogan which lasted for 133 years: "The Book of Allah is enough for us!"[25] After the prophet's demand, there erupted disputes and bickering among the companions. They stood up to fetch a pen and paper. ‘Umar noticed that they would now bring what the Prophet demanded and the message would be written; so, he said: "This man is talking nonsense in his delirium."[26]

This was a battle against the traditions of the Prophet (S.A.W.). They said: Let's go and bring. The Prophet (S.A.W.) said: "After such utterance?! The one who was able to say in the presence of the Prophet (S.A.W.) that he had been talking nonsense in his delirium, would also be able to provide three/four so-called witnesses to testify that the Prophet (S.A.W.) in his deathbed had been talking nonsense in his delirium and had not said and written as such. That was why the Apostle of Allah said: "Go away from me; there should be no dispute in my (the Prophet's) presence."[27]

The period after the Prophet (S.A.W.) was so painful. It is said about Abū Bakr in Dhahabī's Tadhkirat al-Ḥuffāẓ that after people swore allegiance to him, he said: "Do not relate ḥadīth from the Apostle of Allah, and if you are asked about him, say the Book of Allah suffices between us and you; know its lawful as lawful and its unlawful as unlawful."[28] This is the politics of the caliphs' school.

What is left untold here is that upon receiving any āyah through revelation, the Prophet (S.A.W.) would fulfill the propagation by stating [in detail] what was revealed to him by God to whomever he was propagating that āyah; the last of the Prophets (S.A.W.)'s propagation was not incomplete. If he said: ﴾Maintain the prayer from the sun's decline﴿[29], this has been revealed through non-Expressive Revelation. Besides this, Gabriel had told him how to perform ablution and how to maintain the prayer. These are among the important issues that I express, hoping to unveil further issues in recognition of ḥadīth.

Ibn Mas‘ūd says: "I learned seventy sūrahs directly from the Prophet (S.A.W.)." For instance, when the āyah ﴾And the tree cursed.﴿ was revealed, the Prophet said to him that these are the Umayyad. Thus, the ṣuḥuf (pl. of ṣaḥīfa, i.e., sheets) of ṣaḥāba (companions of the Prophet) were written by the statements uttered by the Prophet (S.A.W.) on the interpretation of the Qur'an. Ibn Mas‘ūd had written down his own ṣuḥuf according to what he had heard from the Prophet (S.A.W.), and another ṣaḥāba had written his own ṣuḥuf, and so on and so forth.

I do not accurately remember, perhaps it was related in Musnad of Aḥmad that in the mosque, the Prophet (S.A.W.) "Taught us ten āyahs at a time, until we learned what of knowledge and action they contained."[30] For instance, if the story of a Prophet was brought up [in the Qur'an], the Prophet (S.A.W.) would recount the story of that Prophet; or if the āyah was about the Resurrection Day, he would explain what that Day it was like. If the āyah was revealed on such rulings as ablution, prayer, and dry ablution (tayammum), he would instruct how to practice it. Thus, the Prophet (S.A.W.) did not propagate any of the āyahs of the Qur'an, unless it would have been accompanied with its Expressive Revelation and conveyed to the umma as well.

Expressive Revelation is the very ḥadīth of the Prophet (S.A.W.) to us. These Expressive Revelations of the Prophet (S.A.W.) were opposed to the caliphs' policies. For instance, it is related in Ṣaḥīḥ of Bukhārī concerning the āyah ﴾O you who have faith! Do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet﴿ that it had been addressed to Abū Bakr and ‘Umar.[31] Well, this does not go with the caliphs' policies, and there were not one or two of such cases, but many.

The Prophet (S.A.W.) had two Qur'anic writings: first, the one that everyone heard and the companions wrote down; the second, what was revealed to the Prophet (S.A.W.) and his holiness summoned any one of the companions around and had him write (both) the Qur'anic and Expressive Revelations on whatever he happened to have in hand. I have seen up to 28 "writers of Revelation" in the history of the Holy Prophet; of course, they were not kutāb al-Nabī (the Prophet's scribes). The Prophet (S.A.W.)'s scribe was no one other than ‘Alī (A.S.). These writers were those whom the Prophet (S.A.W.) would call to write down the Revelations, and each one of them who was present there would do the writing for the Apostle of Allah.

Divine Revelation was sometimes written on wood or paper; sometimes on skin; and sometimes on the shoulder blade of sheep, cows, and camels. These writings were kept in the house of the Prophet (S.A.W.). The Prophet (S.A.W.) advised ‘Alī (A.S.) in his will "to compile these [writings] as soon as you are done with my shrouding and burial." To compile them, ‘Alī (A.S.) would make a hole in the boards and skins and run a piece of thread through them. He began this compilation in Wednesday morning (since the Holy Prophet's burial ceremony lasted till Tuesday night) and finished it in Friday morning. Then, with the help of Ghanbar he took the Muṣḥaf, which contained all the Qur'an and the Expressive Revelation, to the mosque of the Prophet (S.A.W.).

The caliphs stood up against Amīr al-Mu’minīn and said: "We do nor need your compiled Qur'an, we have our own Qur'an." They were right; they had the Qur'an (i.e., the Qur'anic Revelation). The Imam said: "You will not see this Qur'an any longer." And it is, according to our traditions, the New Scripture that his holiness, Imam Mahdī (Aj.), will bring.

Now, let us see what they did to the traditions of the Prophet (S.A.W.). Abū Bakr ordered that the Qur'an be compiled devoid of the Expressive Revelation. This compilation began in the time of Abū Bakr and ended in the time of ‘Umar. The latter left the Qur'an with Ḥafḍa and began to prevent the dissemination of the traditions of the Prophet (S.A.W.).

What did ‘Umar do with the Ḥadīth of the Prophet (S.A.W.)?

Firstly, he banned the transmission of the Prophet (S.A.W.)'s traditions. For instance, three people were relating ḥadīth outside Medina. He brought them back to Medina, imprisoned them, and did not let them leave medina.

It is related in the biography of ‘Umar in Ṭabarī's Ta’rīkh as well as in Ibn Māja's Sunan that Qurra b. Ka‘b said: ‘Umar appointed me as governor of Kūfa and saw me off to the outskirt of Medina. He (‘Umar) asked: "Do you know why I see you off?" I (Ibn Māja) said: "Because we are the Prophet's companion." He said: "And yet, I require a village in which the people recite the Qur'an like the bees humming, that they may not be busy with the traditions of the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.)."[32] It is written when asked about the narration of ḥadīth from the Prophet (S.A.W.), Qarra said: "‘Umar has prohibited us [from doing so]."

This prohibition was to the extent that (I have written in the first and second volume of my Ma‘ālim al-Madrisatayn and it is also related in Ṭabarī's Ta’rīkh on the biography of ‘Umar b. Khaṭṭāb) Abū Mūsā Ash‘arī says: Whomever ‘Umar dispatched as governor to a place, he would accompany him to the outskirt of Medina and would advice him not to relate ḥadīth from the Prophet (S.A.W.)!"

Secondly, he also prohibited asking for interpretation of the Qur'an. He only permitted several people in Medina to relate ḥadīth. These included: Umm al-Mu’mminīn ‘Ā’isha (as, in the second volume of my Aḥādīth-i Umm al-Mu’minīn ‘Ā’isha I have proved that no one in the history of Islam has fabricated as many lies against the Prophet of Allah as ‘Ā’isha did) and the Jewish Ka‘b al-Aḥbār (who, when Jerusalem was conquered, wanted to go there, but ‘Umar kept him in Medina and appointed him as the official spokesman of the court of caliphate). There were several others whom he had permitted to relate ḥadīth. He had banned other companions from narrating the Prophet (S.A.W.)'s traditions. Tamim Dārī, a Christian monk, was their official speaker before the Friday prayers. These were the ones who narrated ḥadīth and no one else was privileged during the caliphate of ‘Umar to relate ḥadīth.

Thirdly, he had prohibited interpretation of the Qur'an, as well. The story I will recount as follows is also related in several books of the Sunnīs, and I have related it in my Ma‘ālim al-Madrisatayn. Someone named Ṣabīgh b. ‘Isl Tamīmī was from among the noble of the Tamīm tribe who was interpreting the Qur'an in Alexandria and asked for interpretation of the Qur'an from the Prophet's companions who were there. ‘Amr ‘Āṣ informed ‘Umar about that. ‘Umar said: "Send him to me!" ‘Umar had him sit down and hit him on the head with ‘idhq (a palm date cluster whose dates are picked) so much as when he stood up blood was dripping from his Arabic gown. For the second time, ‘Umar asked for him. This time he made him lie face down on the ground and gave him one hundred lashes on the back, so that when he rose up, blood was running on his back. When they brought him in for the third time, he said: "O Amīr al-Mu’minīm! If you want to kill me, well, kill me calmly!"[33] ‘Umar sent him to Abū Mūsā Ash‘arī in Baṣra and prohibited that anyone talk to him. When he entered the mosque, people would disperse away from him. Wherever he stood, no one would stand next to him. Then, he went to Abū Mūsā Ash‘arī and complaint to him. Abū Mūsā mediated and he was set free. I have quoted the sanad of this event in my book from the school of the caliphs. So, that was the way they prevented the dissemination of the traditions of the Prophet (S.A.W.). There are more, even worse…

We read in Ibn Sa‘d's Ṭabaqāt on the biography of Qāsim b. Muḥammad b. Abī Bakr that on the pulpit ‘Umar swore the companions of the Prophet (S.A.W.) that whoever had written down a ḥadīth from the Prophet (S.A.W.) should bring it to him. The companions, in fact, did not know what he planned to do. Every one of the companions who had a tradition from the Prophet (S.A.W.) in his possession brought it in. When all brought their traditions, he [‘Umar] set them all on fire.[34] Thus, the Prophet (S.A.W.)'s traditions were thus collected so that what remained of them were the ones orally narrated by ‘Ā’isha, Tamīm Dārī, and Ka‘b al-Akhbār. Ibn ‘Abbās was also given permission. However, they had determined for him what to say; he was not to say anything except interpreting the verses concerning the Hell and the Paradise, and the like.

This was how ‘Umar treated the written traditions. There were no traditions left of the Prophet (S.A.W.) except those in possession of the companions in their maṣāḥif (i.e., the Qur'an copies with their interpretation).

In the second volume of my Al-Qur'an al-Karīm wa Riwāyāt al-Madrisatayn concerning the compilation of the Qur'an, I have written that ‘Umar saw a copy of the Qur'an that contained in its margin a statement by the Prophet (S.A.W.); he cut off that margin with scissors, and left out the Prophet's ḥadīth (Expressive Revelation).

When ‘Umar died, ‘Uthmān took that copy of the compiled and non-interpreted Qur'an (which lacked the Expressive Revelation) from Ḥafṣa and ordered to transcribe seven copies from it and sent six copies to Mecca, Yemen, Damascus, Ḥimṣ, Kufa, and Basra. He kept one copy with him in Medina. This Qur'an (Ḥafṣa copy) had misspelled words. ‘Uthmān said: "fīhi laḥnun satuqīmuhū al-‘Arab bi al-sinatuhā"(there are misspellings in it which the Arab will rectify it with his tongue).[35] The meaning of this sentence is not clearly understood. Laḥn means misspelling. Muslims have preserved even those misspellings up to the present time. The Qur'an which is now among the Muslims is the Qur'an that ‘Uthmān has transcribed. I have disproved that ‘Uthmān is said to have compiled the Qur'an. The Qur'an has been compiled in the time of the Prophet (S.A.W.) with Revelation from Gabriel: ﴾Indeed it is up to Us to put it together and to recite it…Then, its exposition indeed [also] lies with Us.﴿[36]

At first, God put the Qur'an together in the heart of the Prophet (S.A.W.), and then every year in the month of Ramadn Gabriel and the Prophet (S.A.W.) cross checked it; and in the year of the Prophet (S.A.W.)'s demise, it was checked twice. Tens, or even, hundreds of the companions had written down the Qur'an in the time of the Prophet (S.A.W.) and thousands of them had memorized it. What is to be said is that the ḥadīth (i.e., the expressive interpretation) has been omitted and the Qur'an that is in our hands now has been written since the time of ‘Uthmān, not that the Qur'an having been compiled by him. The Qur'an was not compiled by the Prophet (S.A.W.), nor by Abū Bakr and ‘Umar; Allah compiled (put it together). The narrations that ascribe the compilation of the Qur'an to others are all false. I have proven this in the second volume of my Al-Qur'ān al-Karīm wa Riwāyāt al-Madrisatayn, the chapter on Jam‘ al-Qur‘an (the compilation of the Qur'an).

Not a verse of the Qur'an is displaced, nor even a word of it has changed. As for the narrations of distortion, I should say that they either do not exist at all, or we have not grasped their meanings. For instance, that the verse ﴾Indeed Allah desires to repel all impurity from you, O People of the Household…﴿[37] is revealed along with the verses of Nisā’ al-Nabī (āyahs concerning the wives of the Prophet - S.A.W.), has a wise reason that requires another chance for me to tell why this verse should have been revealed here; it has been revealed by God's order. Displacement of the Qur'an is like saying the eye can be put in place of the ear; it is not possible; the meaning will be changed. The Qur'anic sūras do not have rhythm. I grasped their rhythm, but I can not express it. Sūras of the Qur'an are like poetry in the period prior to the period of Khalīl b. Aḥmad; they have rhythm; but the people do not truly know it or do not understand it. One single word of the Qur'an is not displaced, not even a word has been added to it or subtracted from it. Every word is positioned in its own place among other words and conforms to other words, to the whole verse, and to the whole chapter.

Thus, they collected the traditions and burned them and the Qur'an was left alone. Only one person did not give in his muṣḥaf (copy of the Qur'an), and that was ‘Abd Allāh b. Mas‘ūd. In the time of ‘Uthmān, the collection of the copies of the Qur'an was intensified. Those of the companions who had rebelled against ‘Uthmān, kept using the Qur'an. In Kufa, ‘Abd Allāh b. Mas‘ūd, who was a reciter of the Qur'an, had dispute with Walīd, the governor there. Ibn Mas‘ūd would recite the verse ﴾If a profligate [person] should bring you some news…﴿[38] and would say that this verse was revealed about Walīd. Therefore, ‘Uthmān collected the companions' copies of the Qur'an and burned all of them, except for the one belonging to Ibn Mas‘ūd who did not give his muṣḥaf, and what not that happened to him!

This Qur'an that we have now is the same Qur'an that was revealed to the Prophet (S.A.W.) and has no displacements or variations (in the number of words). What they did was to separate the Expressive Revelation from it, and then, they prohibited the writing of the Prophet (S.A.W.)'s traditions, too. Only during the apparent caliphate of Amīr al-Mu‘minīn ‘Alī (A.S.) [between the years 36/656-40/660] and in the time of ‘Umar ‘Abd al-‘Azīz (the years 99/717 and 100/718) the writing of the Prophet (S.A.W.)'s traditions were allowed. After the Umayyad themselves poisoned ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz to death, once again, the writing of the Prophet (S.A.W.)'s traditions was banned until the year 143/760. It is related in Suyūtī's Ta’rīkh al-Khulafā (on the biography of Abū Ja‘far Manṣūr) and in Dhahabī's Ta’rīhk al-Islām that the permission for writing traditions was give in the era of Manṣūr. Sīra, ḥadīth, tafsīr, and the like were written from that time on. So, for 130 years the traditions of the Apostle of Allah had been transmitted by word of mouth.

Traditions of the Prophet (S.A.W.) during the Caliphate of ‘Alī (A.S.) and Mu‘āwiya

Imam ‘Alī (A.S.) undertook two tasks: first, he rendered a Qur'anic service by devising the science of syntax to preserve the Qur'an. Second, he ordered eight hundred companions to narrate the traditions of the Prophet (S.A.W.); and, thus, the sound traditions which are related in the Ṣaḥīḥs of Bukhārī and Muslim are from the time of Amīr al-Mu’minīn ‘Alī (A.S.). For example, it is related in Ṣaḥīḥ of Bukhārī that the Prophet (S.A.W.) said to 'Alī (A.S.): "You art to me as Aaron was to Moses, except that there is no prophetafter me."[39]

When Mu‘āwiya took over the rule, he found out that the Islamic doctrines and knowledge (ma‘ārif) as well as the milieu of the Muslim world were against him, and the traditions asserting the excellence of Imam ‘Alī (A.S.) were abundantly disseminated. So, he commanded that no traditions to be transmitted about Abū Turāb ‘Alī (A.S.) and his children. Now, what did they do? Here, I state only one example of the contradictions arising in ḥadīth (and for more examples, see the first volume of my Aḥādīth Umm al-Mu’minīn ‘Ā’isha and its Persian translation Naqsh-i ‘Ā’isha dar Tārīkh-i Islām).

It is related in the narrations of the school of the caliphs in Ṭabarī's Tafsīr and Ṭa’rīkh that when the verse ﴾Warn the nearest of your kinsfolk…﴿[40] was revealed, the Prophet (S.A.W.) ordered Banī ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib to come to him and told them: "Which one of you will support me in this affair [Prophetic Mission] so that he may become my caliph, waṣī (trustee, spiritual heir), and vizier?" No one accepted. ‘Alī, who was an adolescent then, said: "Me, O Apostle of Allah!" The Prophet raised him up and said: "This is my brother and caliph and trustee and successor among you after me, listen to him and obey him." Banū ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib stood up and went away, ridiculing Abū Ṭālib that: "Your nephew commands you to obey your own son!"

Abū Hurayra says whenthe verse ﴾Warn the nearest of your kinsfolk…﴿was revealed, the Prophet (S.A.W.) climbed up the Mount Ṣafā and said: "O Banī ‘Abd Manāf! O Banī ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib! O Ṣafiya bint ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib! O Fāṭtima bint Muḥammad! O ‘Ā’isha bint Abī Bakr! I am of no avail to you against [the judgment of] Allah."[41]

Abū Hurayra had come to Medina on the same ship that brought Ja‘far b. Abī Ṭālib and his companions from Abyssinia in the year of the conquest of Khyber. They reached the Army of Islam during the conquest of Khyber, where the Prophet (S.A.W.) gave them a share of the Khyber spoils. Where had Abū Hurayra been at the time of the Revelation of the verse ﴾Warn the nearest of your kinsfolk…﴿so as to narrate this event? Ḥaḍrat Zahrā was born in the fifth year after the beginning of the Prophet (S.A.W.)'s Mission (Bi‘that). This verse was revealed in the third year of Bi‘that. In this year Ḥaḍrat Zahra and ‘Ā’isha had not been born yet.

Imam Ja‘far Ṣādiq (A.S.) says: "Two men and a woman fabricated lies against the Apostle of Allah." On another occasion, the Imam names them: Abū Hurayra, Anas b. Mālik, and a woman [’imra’atun] (which is unspecified).[42]

Keep these three in mind. The sabotage that these three committed against the traditions of the Prophet (S.A.W.) has not been done by anybody else [See: Al-Kāfī, vol. 3, p. 342; Al-Tahdhīb, vol. 2, p. 321.].

The false traditions that we have today have all been fabricated in the time of Mu‘āwiya.

This was a brief account of the history of traditions in the school of the caliphs.

The Prophet's Traditions in the School of Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.)

As for the school of Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.), first of all we had a jāmi‘a (a compiled scroll), the description of which is given in Ma‘ālim al-Madrisatayn. Whenever a Revelation came to the Prophet (S.A.W.), ‘Alī (A.S.) would go to him late at night, and the Prophet (S.A.W.) would dictate it to him. He told him: "Write!" He replied: "Do you fear that I may forget?" The Prophet (S.A.W.) said: "No, I do not; as I have asked God that you may not forget anything; but write it for your partners." "Who are my partners?" He asked. The Prophet (S.A.W.) pointed to Imam Ḥasan – who was then a child – and said: "This son of yours is the first of them." Then, he pointed to Ḥusayn – who was a child, too – and said: "The second is this son of yours and nine of his progeny."[43] Imam ‘Alī (A.S.), then, wrote their names on a camel's skin – as the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) dictated them to him.

Ḥaḍrat ‘Alī (A.S.) would write in the jāmi‘a whatever that were revealed to the Apostle of Allah (S.A.W.). It is said that jāmi‘a was seventy dhirā‘ (cubits) and seventeen of the companions of the Imams (A.S.) up to Imam Riḍā (A.S.) have seen it. The Imams (A.S.) have related to their companions about jāmi‘a and the muṣḥaf of ‘Alī (the Qur'an which contained Expressive Revelation and was with them)[44] and the companions would write it so far as it became uṣūl arbi‘a mi’a (four hundred principles), and possibly it increased in number later on.

The uṣūl were very small books. Two of them are now available in Tehran University by the name ‘Aṣl-i ‘Uṣfurī. I recommend you to research into these uṣūl arbi‘a mi’a one by one to find out what has befallen them. This would be the greatest service. Of course, Kāfī, Istibṣār, and Tahdhīb, etc. have to be researched into, as well, which are also of significance.

The first person who collected uṣūl arbi‘a mi’a was Kulaynī (359/969) who has gathered several principles (aṣl) in his Kāfī. For twenty years Kulaynī traveled from town to town, village to village, from Nayshābūr to Baghdad and compiled what he had found in this respect. The second person, who compiled the principles and has done it quite well, was Shaykh Ṣadūq (who is said to have died in 383/993). He has authored over two hundred volumes of books. Next to him is Shaykh Ṭūsī (d. 460/1067) who has gathered the principles in his Istibṣār and Tahdhīb.

More importantly, our scholars have been treating traditions in two ways since the time of Shaykh Ṣadūq. They have treated the legal traditions in a specific manner. In his over two hundred volumes of books, Shaykh Ṣadūq has related ḥadīth from those whom he had not related ḥadīth in Man lā Yaḥḍuru al-Faqīh. Shaykh Ṭūsī has related ḥadīth in his Tibyān from such people as ‘Ā’isha and ‘Abd Allāh b. Zubayr from whom he had not related ḥadīth in his Istibṣār and Tahdhīb. Our jurists, specially the last of them, Ayatollah Burūjirdī and Ayatollah Khū’ī have done researches on legal (fiqhī) traditions in terms of both their sanads and texts which is unlikely to be done any further by mankind; and I have proved with scholarly arguments that if one wants to attain the Islamic rulings (which are provided by the Holy Prophet), he has no other ways except referring to the books by the Shī‘a jurists. Unfortunately, however, not enough research has been done on non-legal traditions. For instance, Shaykh Ṭūsī tells the story of efk (calumny) and says it is about ‘Ā’isha and acquits her. This issue has found its way from Shaykh Ṭūsī's Tibyān to Majma‘ al-Bayān and Abū al-Futūḥ Rāzī's Tafsīr, and then to Gāzur's Tafsīr, and so forth,… whereas, the verses in relation to efk have been revealed in order to acquit Māriya from the calumny that ‘Ā’isha and her followers had perpetrated on her.

The first person who, up to the present day, has done researches on our non-legal traditions is ‘Allāma Shūshtarī (ra) who has presented systematic works in his Akhbār al-Dakhīla and other sources. Perhaps, Sayyid Murtaḍā ‘Askarī has also done some works in this respect. Our need for traditions concerning rules of conduct, ethics, and ideology is very pressing. However, I would need another lengthy opportunity if I want to recount the destructive works perpetrated to our non-legal – rather than the legal – books. There are some traditions that I have named as Riwāyāt al-Muntaqala (transferred traditions). These traditions have originally belonged to the school of the caliphs and then entered into Shaykh Ṣadūq's books and Ṭūsī's Tibyān, etc, to the extent that they finally ended up, for instance, in Ḥāj Shaykh ‘Abbās Qummī's Muntahī al-Āmāl.

Not sufficient and competent researches have been done about the traditions on the sīra of the Prophet (S.A.W.), either. I was in Kazimayn and Biḥār al-Anwār had not been published in Iran yet. I decided to set up a scholarly group and to edit and publish Biḥār. The group was formed; including me, Shaykh Muḥammad Riḍā Shabībī (Head of Iraq Scholars Assembly and a Shī‘a scholar), Dr. Muṣṭafā Jawād, and Dr. Ṣāḥib Zaynī. I suggested starting with the sīra of the Prophet (S.A.W.). I found traditions which were very unlikely to be true; for instance, it was claimed in one ḥadīth that the earth was on the horn of a cow, and the cow was standing on a fish, and so forth! Who is the narrator of this tradition? Abū al-Ḥasan al-Bakraī. I took to study the late Majlisī's references and found out that ‘Allāma Majlisī had named about two hundred and fifty Shī‘a references and about ninety Sunnī references in the reference part of his book.

I found ‘Allāma Majlisī had said that Abū al-Ḥasan al-Bakrī had been a Shī‘a, and he had two reasons for this saying: first, this ḥadīth had been recited during the ten days of Rabī‘ al-Mawlūd fī maḥḍar al-‘ulamā (in the presence of the scholars) (implying that in Isfahan, they used to celebrate the ten days celebrations [of the Prophet (S.A.W.)'s birth anniversary). Second, he had been Shahīd Thānī's master. The first reason is of no validity to us. And as for the second reason, I studied and found out that this person had been Shahīd Thānī's master in transmission of ḥadīth and that too in ijāza (written permission) of narration a Sunnī would give to a Shī‘a.

I further studied, and noticed that there are two by the name Abū al-Ḥasan al-Bakrī, one in Shām and the other in Egypt. One was Aḥmad and the other was Muḥammad. The aforementioned tradition belongs to the Egyptian one who is notorious for fabrication and has written three books: one about the Prophet (S.A.W.), another about ‘Alī (A.S.) and the third about ḥaḍrat Fāṭima (S.A.) which has gone as far as Muntahā al-Āmāl.

So, such was the way that these gentlemen's traditions entered our books. Among the Shī‘a scholars from the past up to the prsent, no one has contributed to ḥadīth as Majlisī did. We are not to underrate the contributions made by such scholars, as whatever we have is from them. Only, Shī‘a scholars respect each other but do not imitate. We do not imitate. In relation to traditions of sīra, traditions of the Qur'an interpretation, traditions of ideology, traditions of ethics and rules of conduct, we are in need of the same things that our scholars did in other traditions.

Here is one example of our scholars' precautious measures in the past.

An Example of Shī‘a Precision in Transmission and Recording of Ḥadīth

Among the scholars who have worked on ḥadīth and I have met them was my late grandfather Āqā Mīrzā Muḥammad ‘Askarī Tihrānī, [known as] Khātam al-Muḥaddithīn (the seal of the traditionists). He was a disciple of Mīrzā Ḥasan Shīrāzī and the third scholar in rank in Samarra. Āqā Mīrzā Muḥammad Tihrānī had written the Mustadrak of Biḥār whose written permissions (ijāzāt) alone were five volumes; and the late Shaykh Āqā Buzurg Tihrānī and the late Āqā Sayyid Muḥsin Amīn had used his book of ijāzāt. The book of ijāzāt of Biḥār is also four volumes. I would quote parts of two written-permission traditions to show how our scholars acted in transmission and recording of ḥadīth in the past. These two traditions, which I have quoted from Kitāb al-Ijāzāt of Biḥār al-Anwār in the first volume of my Al-Qur’ān al-Karīm wa Riwāyāt al-Madrisatayn are published there in ‘Allāma Majlisī's own handwriting.

1. It is related in the ijāza of Shaykh Fakhr al-Dīn Muḥammad, ‘Allāma Majlisī's son (771/1369), to Shaykh Muḥsin b. Maẓāhir:

I also permitted him to narrate from me the written works of Al-Shaykh Abī Ja‘far Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Ṭūsī, among whose works was the book Tahdhīb al-Aḥkām. Verily, I have read it to my father lesson after lesson and finished reading it in Jurjān in 712/1312 – my narration from my father – then, my father has read it to his father Al-Muẓaffar Yūsif b. ‘Alī and got permission from him to narrate it; then, the aforementioned Yūsif read it to Al-Shaykh Mu‘ammar b. Hibat Allāh b. Nāfi‘ al-Warrāq and got permission from him to narrate it; then, the jurist, the aforementioned Mu‘ammar, read it to the jurist Abī Ja‘far Muḥammad b. Shahrāshūb and got permission from him to narrate it; then, Shahrāshūb read it to his scribe, Abī Ja‘far Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Ṭūsī, and my father read it for the second time.

As you see, Shaykh Fakhr al-Dīn Muḥammad has given permission for this book in two ways (ṭarīq), tracing back (lesson after lesson) up to the author [al-Ṭūsī].

2. Another narration is the written permission from the late Majlisi to his book Al-Kāfī which I have facsimiled in my book. This copy of Al-Kāfī is now being preserved in AQR Library. I quote a part of the permission to you as follows:

In the Name of Allah, the All-Beneficent, the All-Merciful… May Allah Almighty assist him soar high to the sublime levels of perfection in knowledge and deed, … by means of hearing, editing, careful examining, and recording [of the book] in the sessions, the last of which was on the 15th of Jumādī al-Awwal, the year 1013/1604.

And in another part of this ijāza, he said:

This book was finished by our learned, ingenious, brilliant, sagacious master, Muḥammad Shafī‘ al-Tuysirkānī, by means of hearing, editing, careful examining, and recording in the sessions, the last of which was on a day of Dhu'l Ḥijja, the year 1083/1672.

That is, while he had been reading the book Al-Kāfī, the granter of permission would write permission for him (on the margin). Then he said:

I granted him – may Allah confirm him – permission to narrate from me all that its narration is sound to me and its permission according to my sanads are linked to the Infallible Imams…

The permission for narration with our scholars in the past is like the permission for ijtihād (legal reasoning) today. It has not been such that in one general phrasing they would say: "I permitted him to narrate from me that which its narration is sound" (that includes myself, who have permission from masters: the late Shaykh Āqā Buzurg and my late grandfather to relate narrations; and sometimes I give narration permission). Rather, what had been read correctly to the granter of permission, the latter would say, "I permit this" (and my permission goes back to such and such, until reaching the author).

This has been the way our scholars treated narrations in the past; but, since the dispute arose between the akhbārīs (traditionists) and uṣūlīs (theologians), most of what we undertake to do is researching and delving into legal (fiqhī) traditions. As for other traditions, we do not relate them as they deserve, and the ijāza for narration with us is not like that of the past.

Now let me give an example of what I saw in the school of the caliphs. It was related in one of the Sunnī sources that one of their scholars saw an infant [in a house of a scholar]. He said: "I am afraid I would not live long enough to have this baby as my student, so I give him ijāza to relate ḥadīth from me!"[45]

Thus, there is a big difference between ḥadīth in the school of the caliphs and that of the Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.).

[1] Al-Qur'an, 42: 13.

[2] Al-Qur'an, 37: 83.

[3] Al-Qur'an, 3: 95.

[4] Al-Qur'an, 4: 125.

[5] Al-Qur'an, 5: 3.

[6] Al-Qur'an, 58: 27.

[7] Al-Qur'an, 4: 171.

[8] Al-Qur'an, 17: 78.

[9] Al-Qur'an, 53: 4.

[10] Al-Qur'an, 16: 44.

[11] Al-Qur'an, 5: 67.

[12] Biḥār al-Anwār, vol. 37, pp. 155-189.

[13] Al-Qur'an, 53, 3-4.

[14] Al-Qur'an, 69, 44-47.

[15] Al-Qur'an, 17: 60.

[16] Al-Qur'an, 15: 9.

[17] Al-Qur'an, 66: 4.

[18] Al-Qur'an, 66: 10.

[19] Abī Dāwūd, Sunan, vol. 2, p. 176; Mustadrak al-Ḥākim, vol. 1, p. 106.

[20] Aḥmad, Musnad, vol. 5, p. 197; Mustadrak al-Ḥākim, vol. 3, pp. 342, 344.

[21] Knaz al-‘Ummāl, vol. 13, p. 539.

[22] For more information, see: ‘Ulūm-i Ḥadīth, No. 5, p. 8 (the article "man‘i tadwīn-i ḥadīth" – Prohibition of ḥadīth Compilation, by Muḥammad ‘Alī Mahdavī Rād).

[23] Abī Dāwūd, Sunan, vol. 2, p. 176; Mustadrak al-Ḥākim, vol. 1, p. 106.

[24] Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ, vol. 5, p. 76; Al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ, vol. 1, p. 54; Aḥmad, Musnad, vol. 1,p. 355.

[25] Al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ, vol. 7, p. 9.

[26] With different wordings in: Al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ, vol. 4, p. 31; Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ, vol. 2, p. 16; Aḥmad, Musnad, vol. 1, p. 355; Ta’rīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 3, p. 193; Ibn Athīr, Kāmil, vol. 2, p. 320.

[27] Al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ, vol. 1, p. 37; and for more information see: Al-Murāji‘āt, ed. Ḥusayn al-Rāḍī, Tatimma.

[28] Tadhkira al-Ḥuffāẓ, vol. 1, p. 5.

[29] Al-Qur'an, 17, 78.

[30] Aḥmad, Musnad, vol. 5, p. 410; Al-Ṭabarī, Tafsīr, vol. 1, p. 27; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, vol. 2, p. 346; Biḥār al-Anwār, vol. 92, p. 106; for more information, see: Al-Sayyid Murtaḍā al-‘Askarī, Al-Qur'an al-Karīm wa Riwāyāt al-Madrisatayn, vol. 1, p. 157, Shirkat al-Tawḥīd li al-Nashr, Tehran.

[31] Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ, vol. 4, p. 4109 and vol. 6, p. 6872, Al-Bughā Publication, on the Revelation occasion of this āyah (Al-Qur'an, 49: 2).

[32] Mustadrak al-Ḥākim, vol. 1, p. 102.

[33] Al-Durr al-Manthūr, vol. 2, p. 7.

[34] Ibn Sa‘d, Ṭabaqāt, vol. 5, p. 140.

[35] Al-Durar al-Manthūr, vol. 2, p. 246.

[36] Al-Qur'an, 75: 17 & 19.

[37] Al-Qur'an, 33: 33.

[38] Al-Qur'an, 49: 6.

[39] Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ, vol. 7, p. 120.

[40] Al-Qur'an, 26: 214.

[41] With slight difference in wording: Al-Nisā’ī, Sunan, vol. 6, p. 147; Aḥmad, Musnad, vol. 2, p. 350; Al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ, vol. 4, p. 161.

[42] Biḥār al-Anwār, vol. 2, p. 217; Al-Īḍāḥ, p. 541; Al-Khiṣāl, p. 190, t. 263.

[43] Biḥār al-Anwār, vo. 36, p. 232.

[44] Also, see: ‘Ulūm Ḥadīth, No. 3, p. 41 (the article Ṣaḥīfa ‘Amīr al-Mu’minīn – A.S – Qadīmtarīn Sanad-i Ḥadīthī., Muḥammad Ṣādiq Najmī).

[45] Al-Qur'an al-Karīm wa Riwāyat al-Madrisatayn, vol. 1, p. 313.

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